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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2011

Andrew J. Cobley, Lindsay Edgar, Martin Goosey, Rod Kellner and Timothy J. Mason

Previous studies have proven that, under optimised ultrasonic conditions, a range of materials used in electronic manufacturing can be sonochemically surface modified using benign…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies have proven that, under optimised ultrasonic conditions, a range of materials used in electronic manufacturing can be sonochemically surface modified using benign solutions at low temperature. The purpose of this paper is to focus on a specific process, namely, the desmearing of through holes in printed circuit boards (PCB). The objective was to determine whether the introduction of low frequency ultrasound (20 kHz) to the “etch” stage of a standard “swell and etch” desmear system could enable reduced temperature processing and the use of less chemistry in the permanganate solution.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was divided into three main stages. In the first “screening” phase, the effect of ultrasound in the etch solution was studied by measuring the weight loss after desmear on a PCB laminate material (Isola 370HR). Factors such as etch temperature and concentration of permanganate (including permanganate‐free) were varied. In stage 2, confirmatory runs were carried out on the most promising conditions from the screening work and through holes in a four‐layer multi‐layer board (MLB) were assessed for smear removal using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Finally, a four‐layer MLB was desmeared through the most promising ultrasonic process and then metallized at a PCB manufacturer. Thermal shock testing was subsequently carried out and sections from the board assessed for inter‐connection defects (ICDs).

Findings

The initial screening study indicated that, whenever ultrasound was used in the etch stage of the desmear process, significantly higher weight loss was achieved compared to a standard “silent” process. This effect was most pronounced when permanganate was removed from the etch solution and, in this situation, weight loss could be an order of magnitude higher than the silent equivalent. Further testing on through holes suggested that smear‐free inner‐layers could only be guaranteed if permanganate was present in the etch solution but that ultrasound again improved smear removal. Final testing under semi‐production conditions confirmed that, if ultrasound was employed in the etch part of the desmear process, then a reduction in processing temperature from 85°C to 60°C could be achieved and the permanganate concentration halved (65 to 33 g/L) whilst still achieving ICD‐free boards.

Originality/value

The paper indicates the feasibility of using ultrasound to reduce temperatures and chemical concentrations used in the permanganate etch solution, whilst still producing through holes with no ICDs.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1987

C.A. Deckert

During the past several years, technical requirements of the printed circuit board industry have increased greatly, due to the need for greater processing latitude, higher density…

Abstract

During the past several years, technical requirements of the printed circuit board industry have increased greatly, due to the need for greater processing latitude, higher density devices and higher reliability in the finished parts. This need has resulted, in many cases, in the emergence and/or recognition of numerous problem areas which have created greater demands on the desmear and PTH processes, specifically. Problems such as hole‐wall pullaway, resin recession, blistering, gross voiding, and blow holes have grown in importance and severity as a result of today's needs. The development of a reliable and practical permanganate desmear process has proven to solve numerous of these technical problems. The characteristics, operation, and advantages of this three‐step permanganate process will be discussed in some detail, with particular emphasis on demonstrated improvement in PCB production results.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1986

C. Lea and F.H. Howie

The drilling and preparation of a hole in FR‐4 laminate prior to the deposition of electroless copper is considered in relation to the quality of soldering achieved on the…

Abstract

The drilling and preparation of a hole in FR‐4 laminate prior to the deposition of electroless copper is considered in relation to the quality of soldering achieved on the finished printed circuit board. Data pertaining to the drill speed, drill feed, and stack position are presented and the effect of drilling temperature is demonstrated. The variability of laminate is discussed in relation to outgassing during soldering. Finally the importance of the post‐drilling treatment of the hole‐wall is shown. The relative effects of baking after drilling, ultrasonic cleaning and chemical treatments such as alkaline potassium permanganate are illustrated.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Martin Goosey and Mark Poole

With the ever increasing demands for high performance electronic devices there is a need for circuit board laminates that have enhanced properties when compared to conventional…

Abstract

With the ever increasing demands for high performance electronic devices there is a need for circuit board laminates that have enhanced properties when compared to conventional materials such as the widely used epoxide‐based FR4 laminates. Equipment manufacturers require boards with better mechanical stability and improved electrical characteristics. At the same time, new environmental legislation is set to drive electronics assembly temperatures much higher as manufacturers start to use lead‐free soldering processes. The legislation is also raising questions about the long‐term viability of brominated resins as the basis for imparting flame retardancy to laminates. Fortunately, laminate manufacturers have responded to these challenges by developing and introducing a wide range of new laminates that address these issues. This paper describes some of these challenges and gives an introduction to the new high performance laminates that are finding increasing use. It also highlights the need for chemical processes used in the manufacture of interconnects with laminates to be specifically optimised for the chosen substrate material.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2023

Julie Stubbs, Sophie Russell, Eileen Baldry, David Brown, Chris Cunneen and Melanie Schwartz

Abstract

Details

Rethinking Community Sanctions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-641-5

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

M.P. Seah, F.H. Howie and C. Lea

This is the third paper in the series of eight, studying voids and blowholes in PTH printed circuit boards. In the previous papers the industrial significance of this problem has…

Abstract

This is the third paper in the series of eight, studying voids and blowholes in PTH printed circuit boards. In the previous papers the industrial significance of this problem has been established and moisture identified as the primary cause of the gassing. Now, particular attention is focused on the understanding of the mechanisms and kinetics of moisture uptake in the FR‐4 laminate. From the authors' data the rate of moisture uptake and the rate of drying of laminate can be predicted as a function of temperature and relative humidity.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1986

C. Lea, M.P. Seah and F.H. Howie

The importance of the quality of the plated‐through‐hole copper barrel in double‐sided and multilayer PCBs is considered with regard to the problem of voids and blowholes in the…

Abstract

The importance of the quality of the plated‐through‐hole copper barrel in double‐sided and multilayer PCBs is considered with regard to the problem of voids and blowholes in the solder fillet. The thickness of the copper, and its integrity and adherence to the drilled surface define its ability to withstand the pressure burst of gas from the outgassing laminate during the few seconds of the thermal spike induced by the molten solder prior to solidification. The ability of copper electroplate to bridge over areas devoid of electroless copper and produce a barrel free of pinholes is shown to be crucial to this problem. In addition, the use of a nickel layer is shown to enhance greatly the impermeability of the barrel to the evolving gases.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 24 August 2010

A.J. Cobley, D.J. Comeskey, L. Paniwnyk and T.J. Mason

The purpose of this paper is to investigate if copper nanoparticles could be utilized for two types of through hole plating in printed circuit boards, namely: as a catalytic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate if copper nanoparticles could be utilized for two types of through hole plating in printed circuit boards, namely: as a catalytic material to initiate the electroless copper deposition process; and as a “conductive” layer which is coherent and conductive enough to allow “direct” electroplating of the through hole. The employment of nanoparticles means that an effective method of dispersion is required and this paper studies the use of mechanical agitation and ultrasound for this purpose.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper utilized drilled, copper clad FR4 laminate. The through holes were functionalized using a commercially available “conditioner” before being immersed in a solution of copper nanoparticles which were dispersed using either a magnetic stirrer or ultrasound (40 kHz). When the copper nanoparticles were utilized as a catalytic material for electroless copper plating, the efficacy of the technique was assessed using a standard “backlight” test which allowed the plating coverage of the through holes to be determined. As a control, a standard palladium catalysed electroless copper process was employed. The morphology of the electroless copper deposits was also analysed using scanning electron microscopy. In the “direct plate” approach, after immersion in the copper nanoparticle dispersion, the through holes were electroplated at 3 Adm−2 for 15 min, sectioned and examined using an optical microscope. The distance that the copper electroplate had penetrated down the through hole was then determined.

Findings

The paper has shown that copper nanoparticles can be used as a catalytic material for electroless copper plating. The coverage of the electroless copper in the through hole improves as the copper nanoparticle concentration increases and, at the highest copper nanoparticle concentrations employed, good, but not complete, electroless copper coverage is obtained. Dispersion of the copper nanoparticles using ultrasound is critical to the process. Ultrasonically dispersed copper nanoparticles achieve some limited success as a conductive layer for “direct” electroplating with some penetration of the electroplated deposit into the through hole. However, if mechanical agitation is employed to mix the nanoparticles, no through hole plating obtaines.

Originality/value

The paper has demonstrated the “proof of concept” that copper nanoparticles can be utilized to catalyse the electroless copper process, as well as their potential to replace costly palladium‐based activators. The paper also illustrates the potential for copper nanoparticles to be used as a “direct plate process” and the necessity for using ultrasound for their dispersion in either process.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1986

C. Lea and F.H. Howie

Data from laboratory and production scale tests are given that show that the efficiency of catalyst adsorption controls the coverage by the electroless copper deposit in…

Abstract

Data from laboratory and production scale tests are given that show that the efficiency of catalyst adsorption controls the coverage by the electroless copper deposit in plated‐through‐holes in FR‐4 laminate, and that this, in turn, governs the outgassing performance of the finished board. The nature of electroless copper nucleation and growth is discussed and the reasons for the formation of voids in the deposit are identified.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Book part
Publication date: 19 June 2024

Claire Loughnan

In this chapter, the author dwells on the effects of documenting and the failure to document, border lives and deaths. Despite their apparent differences, both practices function…

Abstract

In this chapter, the author dwells on the effects of documenting and the failure to document, border lives and deaths. Despite their apparent differences, both practices function as forms of erasure. While the Australian government has historically been keen to document the number of asylum seeker arrivals in this country, it has shown no interest in the numbers and names of those who have died in attempting to arrive here. In contrast, those who manage to cross the border, are subject to intense classificatory and numbering regimes. The latter manifests in bureaucratic control and excessive intervention, while the former reveals governmental denial of complicity in these deaths by not acknowledging them. Both practices share a refusal to encounter the other on ethical terms, reflecting the politics of numbers (Andreas & Greenhill, 2010) at and within the border. This also reveals a paradox, between being represented and not being represented. In the lacuna of details about border deaths, human rights organisations, researchers and advocacy groups have sought both to honour these deaths and to ensure that the scale of border violence is marked by statistical records on the numbers of border deaths. While it might seem that being ‘counted’ – or in Butler’s (2003, p. 41) terms – ‘represented’ is better than not being counted/represented at all, representation is never straightforward (Szörényi, 2009b, p. 185): being counted is often barely a form of representation, with such ‘numbering’ practices contributing to the effacement, rather than the recognition of refugees’ humanity.

Details

Deter, Detain, Dehumanise: The Politics of Seeking Asylum
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83753-224-7

Keywords

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