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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2015

Alvaro Cuervo-Cazurra, Rajneesh Narula and C. Annique Un

– The purpose of this the paper is to review the motives for internationalization to clarify previous arguments and provide a theory-driven classification.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this the paper is to review the motives for internationalization to clarify previous arguments and provide a theory-driven classification.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors build on behavioral economics and propose a classification of internationalization motives as the result of the interaction among two dimensions, an economics-driven exploitation of existing resources or exploration of new resources, and a psychology-driven search for better host country conditions or avoidance of poor home country conditions.

Findings

These two dimensions result in four internationalization motives: sell more, in which the company exploits existing resources at home and obtains better host country conditions; buy better, in which the company exploits existing resources abroad and avoids poor home country conditions; upgrade, in which the company explores for new resources, and it obtains better host country conditions; and escape, in which the company explores for new resources and avoids poor home country conditions.

Originality/value

This theory-driven classification provides predictive power for future analyses of internationalization motives.

Details

The Multinational Business Review, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2010

C. Annique Un and Angeles Montoro‐Sanchez

The purpose of this paper is to integrate three streams of literature – organizational capabilities based in resource‐based view (RBV) and the team‐ and organization‐level…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate three streams of literature – organizational capabilities based in resource‐based view (RBV) and the team‐ and organization‐level innovation – to provide a theoretical framework of how firms invest in developing innovative capabilities for entrepreneurship and change management.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper based on the RBV and the team‐ and organization‐level innovation literatures.

Findings

Linking the three bodies of literature, two main models for developing innovative capabilities are proposed: organization and project team models. The “organization model” requires firms to invest at the organization level to generate the supporting organization‐level processes, i.e. communication routines, independent of when they organize for innovation, and the “project team model” calls for just‐in‐time investment as needed in the process of innovation. The paper discusses other potential models and provides directions for future research on this important and timely topic.

Originality/value

The paper expands the RBV of the firm by providing a theoretical framework of how firms develop the capabilities to mobilize and create knowledge for innovation as an entrepreneurial activity and for managing the changes in organizations.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 December 2005

C. Annique Un and Alvaro Cuervo-Cazurra

We analyze the role of top managers in the process of improving existing products in large established firms. The results of an inductive study reveal two key arguments. First, we…

Abstract

We analyze the role of top managers in the process of improving existing products in large established firms. The results of an inductive study reveal two key arguments. First, we find that the process is an “involved” top-down approach, rather than middle-up-down or bottom-up, discussed in previous studies on new product creation. Top managers actively participate throughout the process, taking on four roles: evaluation of product market performance, selection of products for improvement, initiation of the innovation process through delegation to middle managers of the responsibility to organize bottom-level employees to take actions toward product improvement, and monitoring of progress to ensure improvement (ESIM). Top managers become involved as necessary to reduce the resistance of people at the middle and lower levels to change in current routines. Second, we find that in companies that achieve superior product improvement, managers have well-developed professional absorptive capacity and have routinized frequent interactions to evaluate, select, initiate, and monitor. Other characteristics of managers, such as personal absorptive capacity, incentive system, or mandate from above, are common across both high and low performers.

Details

Strategy Process
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-340-2

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 23 December 2005

Abstract

Details

Strategy Process
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-340-2

Article
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Feng Zhang and Guohua Jiang

Firms increasingly diversify their technological competencies to achieve different strategic objectives. This study aims to explore the impacts of technological knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

Firms increasingly diversify their technological competencies to achieve different strategic objectives. This study aims to explore the impacts of technological knowledge characteristics on patenting choices for inventions created by subsidiaries in an uncertain and fast changing environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The data used in this study are patents granted to the world largest firms by the USPTO for inventions attributable to their subsidiaries in China between 1996 and 2005. In addition, the patent data from State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) of China are used for the matching in terms of filing patent applications in both USA and China for a same piece of technology. A discrete Logit model is used to examine the effects of technological distance and categories on Chinese patent application and international priority.

Findings

The findings suggest that firms have priority to seek international patent protection, instead of host country protection, for valuable subsidiary inventions in their background and marginal technological fields. In addition, a firm may seek host country legal protection simultaneously for inventions built upon knowledge from technologically distant fields.

Research limitations/implications

As we are more interested in protecting technological knowledge, the protection of other types of knowledge, such as organizational knowledge, deserves further research attentions. Moreover, future research may expand current study by including small and medium firms, as well as firms in other developing economies.

Practical implications

While the economic and legal environment in China may have evolved since studied period, the results have practical implications for firms in other developing countries that are at an early stage of catching-up or those in a host location featuring a similar uncertain and fast changing environment. In particular, the study suggests that foreign firm managers would have more strategic choices of patenting than local firms in the host country. For strategically important inventions bridging complex knowledge from different technological areas, firms could seek protection in multiple countries simultaneously, including both home country and other major markets. Furthermore, managers could choose whether or not to protect a particular category of technologies in host country depending on value of the technology to the firm and the IPR protection of host country. Finally, the approach of looking at knowledge-level characteristics, which can be easily measured through readily available intra-firm information, provides managers with a practical and useful tool to make these strategic decisions.

Originality/value

This study represents an effort to extend the understanding on how foreign MNCs could generate and appropriate valuable technologies in an uncertain and fast-changing environment. In particular, the authors focus on how MNCs could use different international patenting patterns to benefit from subsidiary inventions. Whereas previous literature mainly focuses on country-level and firm-level determinants, this study approaches the topic through the lens of knowledge-level factors. By studying how knowledge characteristics determine firm strategic behaviors, the authors offer additional justifications of the knowledge-based view of the firm. Meanwhile, the findings enrich our understanding of an important component of MNC’s global strategies in managing their technologies through selectively patenting in different locations. Firms pursue diversified technologies for different strategic objectives. As subsidiary inventions become a very important source of firm competitiveness, MNCs have to face the trade-off between higher patenting costs and the appropriability of subsidiary generated knowledge. The findings suggest that it is not necessary for MNCs to protect all subsidiary inventions in host countries.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 December 2005

Abstract

Details

Strategy Process
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-340-2

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2010

Domingo Ribeiro‐Soriano and David Urbano

The purpose of this paper is to add new theoretical insights on the employee‐organization relationship (EOR) in the context of corporate entrepreneurship (CE), specifically in…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to add new theoretical insights on the employee‐organization relationship (EOR) in the context of corporate entrepreneurship (CE), specifically in collective entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a brief overview of the content of each of the articles included in this special issue.

Findings

In the last decades, the study of the EOR has become an integral part of the literature as an approach aimed to provide the theoretical foundations to understanding the employee and employer perspectives to the exchange. Also, the greater complex environment and the higher level of innovativeness have pushed firms to become more entrepreneurial in order to identify new opportunities for sustained superior performance. In this context, emerges CE and involves not only formal activities to enhance product innovation, risk taking and a proactive response to environmental forces, but also organizational learning, driven by collaboration, and commitment. Specifically, different EORs and specific human resources management practices are required in the light of collective entrepreneurship, understood as work among entrepreneurial teams within the organizations and collaboration among employees.

Originality/value

The paper provides an overview of the EOR in collective entrepreneurship.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 May 2011

Marvin E. Gonzalez, Gioconda Quesada, James Mueller and Rene D. Mueller

Curriculum development in higher education must be continuously evaluated in this dynamic business environment, where business needs change day‐to‐day. The literature on the…

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Abstract

Purpose

Curriculum development in higher education must be continuously evaluated in this dynamic business environment, where business needs change day‐to‐day. The literature on the application of quality function deployment (QFD) to curriculum design is increasing, with student opinion representing the sole voice of the customer. The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative approach to QFD curriculum design by using a survey of employers, not students, to represent the voice of the customer.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper applies the widely used quality management process of QFD to the curriculum development process of a major international business program.

Findings

The findings illustrate the application of QFD's house of quality in international business curriculum development and best practices benchmarking.

Practical implications

The results of this study are useful to any university to revise or design new academic programs. It presents a methodology to design curriculum based on the voice of the real customer: industry, without forgetting about the expertise of academicians.

Originality/value

This study is intended to be one of the first in defining the customer as the industry, instead of just students or academic experts. The combination of all stakeholders in the curriculum design of international business will help universities make better decisions regarding international business programs.

Details

Journal of International Education in Business, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-469X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2023

Nguyễn Thanh Hoàng

This paper aims to introduce a growth comprehensive pattern to explain the phenomenon of individual foreign investment, first at the global level and then at the regional level…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to introduce a growth comprehensive pattern to explain the phenomenon of individual foreign investment, first at the global level and then at the regional level. The patterns are developed based on a number of main theories with grounded theory (GT) as the foundation, distributed on the two pull and push forces of international business theory and migration theory; simultaneously, it is classified on the three levels (attribute–consequence–value [ACV]) of means-end theory.

Design/methodology/approach

An embedded method is applied to generate two complementary datasets from two approaches: in-depth interviews and secondary data analysis.

Findings

In this structure, the investor plays a central role as the decision-maker based on the entrepreneur's motives for internationalization (economics-driven and psychology-driven factors) and the householders' motives for emigration (aspiration and access capabilities). The external forces considered are a push from the home country (structures) and pull from the host country (immigrant investment programs [IIPs]), in which the factor of (dis)trust/misconception as a moderator has an additional impact on this mobility. Demographic factors such as gender, region, generation/age, level of education, religion and occupation generally describe the characteristics of each specific target group.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is to develop a conceptual framework.

Originality/value

The results of this study, in addition to fulfilling its own objectives, will also serve as the foundation for further research in several scientific fields such as economics, sociology and politics.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-12-2022-0786

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 December 2020

Nuno Arroteia and Khalid Hafeez

This paper investigates how entrepreneurs in an emerging economy in Latin America bundle resources to develop capabilities related to entering new markets whilst creating value…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates how entrepreneurs in an emerging economy in Latin America bundle resources to develop capabilities related to entering new markets whilst creating value for their firms. In particular, the paper explores how individual resources (experiential knowledge and social networks) impact on entrepreneurs' capabilities to exploit new market opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs a case study approach to investigate five cases of entrepreneurs driving technology-based businesses in Brazil. Effectuation theory is used as a lens to ascertain how resources impact on the decision-making capabilities of the entrepreneurs and firms. The research adopts a longitudinal approach, capturing data from thirty interviewees over a period corresponding to domestic and international market entry of these TechnoLatinas ' businesses.

Findings

This paper builds on previous resource-based view (RBV) studies by supplementing evidence that individual and firm-level resources determine the development of capabilities to exploit new market opportunities for new firms. The presence of experiential knowledge (in particular, business planning, market analysis and experimentation) and social networks (individual resources) drives to a mix of causal and effectual heuristics; however, in the presence of firm-level resources (human and financial capital), new entrepreneurs tend to shift towards a stronger causal orientation.

Research limitations/implications

The case companies are high technology, knowledge-intensive Brazilian start-up firms sharing a similar institutional setting. Further research should include a more diverse range of cases including other sectors and other countries in Latin America adopting quantitative design to confirm and generalise these findings.

Practical implications

For policymakers and practitioners, this research provides guidelines on how entrepreneurs' know-how and social networks can be enhanced by providing access to the international market to speed up the growth of a new firm. For entrepreneurship educators, this research explains how effectual orientation (EO) or causal orientation (CO) influences the entrepreneur to exploit the available resources to maximise the growth of businesses in the international market.

Originality/value

The resource-based literature usually ignores the challenges faced by new resource-constrained firms and the individual-level resources of the entrepreneurs. This research contributes to the RBV, entrepreneurship and internationalisation debate by identifying the interplay between RBV and effectuation theory, particularly by bringing forward the impact of individual resources and capabilities of entrepreneurs to make the decision to enter a new market. Moreover, by using the effectuation theory, the research contributes to a better understanding of how resources are managed to create value and growth in new firms.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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