In the last two decades, different policy initiatives have been set up to increase the share of intermodal freight transport through a modal shift. In the design of these…
In the last two decades, different policy initiatives have been set up to increase the share of intermodal freight transport through a modal shift. In the design of these policies, often critical break-even distances are set, showing the cost or price competitiveness of intermodal transport to delineate transport routes that qualify for such a modal shift. In this chapter, we discuss to which extent such break-even distances can be generalized on a larger scale and how they are calculated.
We use two price-based models to calculate break-even distances for an intermodal rail and an intermodal barge transport case. General break-even values do not show the price variation in the transport market and vagueness in the calculation of these values adds to this problem.
We find that for the inland waterway case, intermodal barge transport shows potential on shorter distances as well. In addition, different ways to lower the break-even distance are discussed and a framework for calculating break-even distances is suggested.
The research elaborates on break-even distances in a European context using price data which are fluctuating over time, location specific and often not publicly available.
Policy initiatives promoting intermodal transport should not focus solely on long distance transport. Moreover, evaluating the competitiveness of the intermodal sector solely on a price comparison dishonours its true potential.
This chapter challenges the current European policy on intermodal transport by showing the price competitiveness of intermodal transport in two cases.
EVERY reader who ever served in the forces of the Crown will know that charge those footsloggers were convinced was the Sergeant's delight: Dumb Insolence. This was brought against a man who failed to reply when spoken to. (We must admit that if you did answer, he might find another charge or at least bellow at you “SHUT UP!”.)
Priorities of decarbonizing the mining sector together with an availability of cost-effective technological solutions lead renewable energy (RE) to become an attractive…
Priorities of decarbonizing the mining sector together with an availability of cost-effective technological solutions lead renewable energy (RE) to become an attractive energy source for the mining industry. Several pilot projects are run as hybrid systems, providing additional capacity to traditional energy systems. The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model as a decision-making tool. The decision refers to a replacement of the fossil fuel system contains by the hybrid system in the sense of no return.
Four systems are considered. System one contains only a diesel plant. System two consists of a hybrid energy system with a photovoltaic (PV) part and a genset as back-up. System three includes a conventional natural gas combined cycle (CGCC) plant. Finally, system four covers a hybrid energy system with a PV part and CGCC turbine. The mathematical model is based upon the well-known concept of levelized cost of electricity.
The scenarios account for the degradation rate of PV modules, the PV yields of mines in different locations and the greenhouse gas emissions impact. The results show the break-even times of each scenario and the years of no return for the four systems in each scenario.
The solution of the model is performed for two case-studies. Case study 1 compares the diesel and hybrid PV-diesel systems. Case study 2 compares the CGCC and hybrid PV-natural gas systems.
This model can be generalized to all mining settings, with specific practical implications for off-grid mines.
The results of this paper bring a valuable contribution to carbon dioxide emissions reduction.
The paper aims to enhance the attention of decision-makers on fossil fuel and RE technologies increase the attractiveness of RE in powering mining operations.
The creation of value for shareholders, the central theme of contemporary financial theory, is generally regarded as the ultimate goal for management. The uncertain outlook for the remainder of this decade indicates that a management that does not concern itself with the creation of value for shareholders may be jeopardizing its own existence. The recent and continuing popularity of takeover activity, proxy fights, and existence of stock options suggests it is important for management to be cognizant of shareholders' desire for wealth.
Expansion of large international hotel chains into the Polish hospitality market has radically changed hotel management practices in Poland. The article investigates the…
Expansion of large international hotel chains into the Polish hospitality market has radically changed hotel management practices in Poland. The article investigates the impact of these changes on hotels’ economic performance. This impact is assessed by monitoring changes in the break‐even point, the percentage share of variable costs in sales, margins of safety, operating leverage, and other indicators reflecting economic effects of applied management methods. The research results indicate that cost reduction resulting from the introduction of new management methods must in the future be replaced by measures aimed at stimulating revenue growth.
This exercise is one in a series intended to help students learn how to perform financial calculations in marketing contexts.Helmut Schmidt, product manager for Hohner…
This exercise is one in a series intended to help students learn how to perform financial calculations in marketing contexts.
Helmut Schmidt, product manager for Hohner Musikinstrumente GmbH & Co. KG, the world's foremost manufacturer of harmonicas, accordions, melodicas, and ukuleles, was sitting at his desk reviewing his first assignment from the company's senior executive team. Schmidt had been asked to calculate the break-even point for the company's flagship product, the Marine Band harmonica, under a number of different scenarios.
After completing the exercise, students should be able to:
Calculate unit contribution and margin
Calculate break-even units and market share
Calculate unit contribution and margin
Calculate break-even units and market share
Presents an optimal strategy for managing crocodile farms. The strategy is illustrated with the case study of Caiman Crocodilus Yacare of the farm Coocrijapan. However…
Presents an optimal strategy for managing crocodile farms. The strategy is illustrated with the case study of Caiman Crocodilus Yacare of the farm Coocrijapan. However, the strategy can be easily transferred to other farms, once sufficient data on their own crocodile stock is gathered. The main advantage of the ideas developed is that they deal with just one parameter: the break‐even point of the process. The underlying assumption of having a single parameter is that there is no seasonal change in prices; that is, the unitary price of food (say, per kilogram) and the unitary price of crocodile hide (say, per square centimetre) remain approximately constant in some currency. This may or may not be true in the local currency of the country that hosts the farm. With this assumption, dimensionless quantities for profit and return are found.
The purpose of this paper is to highlight an emerging and evolving area within women’s careers literature – women’s opting-out and opting-in experiences. Highlights from…
The purpose of this paper is to highlight an emerging and evolving area within women’s careers literature – women’s opting-out and opting-in experiences. Highlights from several career theories, extant research, and a framework for women’s opting-out and opting-in experiences are discussed as well as future research considerations for women’s career breaks.
The present study provides the first synthesis of the theoretical and empirical work on women’s opting-out and opting-in experiences, by providing a framework that integrates existing research with the kaleidoscope career model. Published works from 1986 until the present were considered from psychology, management, sociology, and economics literatures.
This paper provides information about how women’s experiences of opting-out and opting-in to the workforce have emerged and evolved over the past few decades. Theoretical foundations, quantitative and qualitative research findings, and considerations for future research are discussed.
This paper is a useful source of information regarding an emerging and evolving area of studying within the women’s career literature. The paper discusses considerations for scholars and practitioners regarding developing, supporting, and retaining female talent amidst women’s career break experiences.
This paper provides an integrative framework that provides theoretical and empirical perspectives on the changing nature of women’s career values and choices, which influences their experiences of opting-out and opting-in to the workforce. Given both the changing demographics of the current workforce (e.g. increased women’s participation in the workforce) and women’s career values, research on women’s career breaks is warranted.
Using labour efficiently in service organisations is an importantmanagement objective since labour frequently accounts for more than 70per cent of total operating costs…
Using labour efficiently in service organisations is an important management objective since labour frequently accounts for more than 70 per cent of total operating costs. While most service organisations can use flexible scheduling rules to improve the utilisation of labour, selecting a good or “best” set of work schedules from a large set of alternatives has proved to be a formidable task. A new modelling procedure is described which allows optimal decisions to be made when the desired level of scheduling flexibility results in a very large population of possible schedules. Flexibility in shift scheduling is increased primarily through increasing the number of different shift lengths and allowing flexible placement of breaks. The power of the new modelling approach was used in an experiment described here to assess the relative impact of shift‐length and break‐placement flexibility on labour utilisation. The results indicated that, while either type of flexibility can improve labour utilisation, there was a rather strong synergistic impact from using both simultaneously.