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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Filippo Vitolla, Michele Rubino and Antonello Garzoni

This paper aims to fill the existing gaps in literature which deal with both the application of a socially oriented philosophy to the theme of strategic corporate social…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to fill the existing gaps in literature which deal with both the application of a socially oriented philosophy to the theme of strategic corporate social responsibility (CSR) integration and to the systematic analysis of the processes of strategic CSR management, and to create a connection between social management philosophy and the dynamic approach to CSR integration based on the strategic management processes. In particular, this study aims at creating a conceptual model to highlight, in a structured and organic way, the dynamic relationships, based on a social management philosophy, characterizing the integration of CSR in the different strategic management processes: formulation and implementation of both intended and emergent strategies. In relation to these goals, the following research questions are formulated: What are the most important strategic management processes in which to integrate CSR following a social management philosophy? How does integration (strategic CSR) based on social management philosophy impact these processes? How do strategic CSR processes based on social management philosophy determine strategic change? Which are the management tools which support integration based on social management philosophy?

Design/methodology/approach

The work is a conceptual paper. The paper has been developed as follows: the identification of the theoretical gaps; the definition of the research objectives; the literature review about both CSR integration and strategic management in a dynamic perspective; the formulation of the research questions; the conceptual analysis, based on social management philosophy, of the relevant propositions related to the dynamic approach to CSR integration; the building of the conceptual model based on the propositions; and the description and the analysis of the model.

Findings

In this model, three circles of change that are able to describe the integration of CSR into strategic management have been identified: A, the circle for achieving the strategic intent; B, the circle for formulating the strategic intent; and C, the circle of bottom-up innovations.

Practical implications

From a managerial perspective, it is possible to point out the following implications related to the integration of CSR into strategic management and the achievement of a strategic CSR: as for change dynamics which are linked to the formulations of the intended strategy, it is fundamental to develop a social management philosophy; to achieve the strategic intent, it is necessary to incorporate CSR actions into core activity of value chain; to favour the socially oriented bottom-up innovations, it is necessary to define a favourable organizational context; the strategic CSR must be supported by integrated tools and methodologies that make the rationalization of processes of change possible; and the application of tools and processes, even sophisticated ones, which are not based on social management philosophy may lead, in the long run, to negative tensions among stakeholders, as well as to serious repercussions on the firm’s management and its performance.

Social implications

It is possible to pinpoint other implications for the society: the circle for achieving the strategic intents, with the aim of improving the execution phase, increases the positive externalities and reduces the negative externalities of the economic activities; the circle for formulating strategic intents allows to identify a win–win solution for CSR issues; and the bottom-up entrepreneurship increases the chances to find innovative solutions which combine social aspects and competitive aspects.

Originality/value

The analyses provide an integrated approach, connecting strategic management and CSR in a dynamic perspective.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2007

Cynthia Dereli

The purpose of this paper is to build on a previous study of strategy in the public sector by Dereli in 2003. In the intervening period the environmental factors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to build on a previous study of strategy in the public sector by Dereli in 2003. In the intervening period the environmental factors influencing local government's approach to strategy have changed considerably, particularly with the government's changed emphasis from best value to comprehensive performance assessment as its methodology for assessing local authorities. The impact of CPA on strategy formation in local authorities is the central focus of this study. The starting point for the research is the question of whether the tension between top‐down and bottom‐up strategy formation which was evident in the earlier study has disappeared, increased or been replaced by other tensions.

Design/methodology/approach

The research involved semi‐structured interviews with Chief Executive Officers and middle managers in three smaller local authorities in England.

Findings

The research found that living with a top‐down/bottom‐up tension in the creation of strategy is almost a norm, but that there is also evidence of a further tension between strategy making and performance management, from which flow some concerns about the future of strategy in local government.

Research limitations/implications

The paper records the views of local government officers, as key participants in the processes of strategy formation in their authorities as valuable evidence in a changing local government scene. The research acknowledges the external factors creating the new set of tensions in local government, which are examined here. It does not seek to examine the relative diachronic impact of these external factors, a piece of work which could usefully explore further the relation between pressures from the centre and local strategy directions.

Originality/value

In the present public sector context, where major reforms are on the horizon, the paper records a snapshot of opinion from key participants in strategy formation in three smaller local authorities.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Sang Lee, Taewon Hwang and Hong‐Hee Lee

This study aims to investigate the emerging new phenomenon of corporate blogging and its objectives. In particular, this study focuses on how Fortune 500 firms attempt to…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the emerging new phenomenon of corporate blogging and its objectives. In particular, this study focuses on how Fortune 500 firms attempt to maintain control, while supporting employee autonomy in corporate blogging.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the framework of corporate blogging strategies proposed in this study, corporate blogging practices of the 2005 Fortune 500 companies were analysed.

Findings

Most organisations maintain high levels of control by implementing top‐down blogging strategies, while few support employee autonomy by applying a bottom‐up blogging strategy. Because of the inherent limitation of each strategy, many organisations attempt to take advantage of the complementary mechanism that balances autonomy and control. Organisations emphasising bottom‐up blogging tend to focus on product development and customer service content strategy, while those practising top‐down blogging focus on thought leadership or promotional content strategy.

Research limitations/implications

This study reports leading blogging firms among the Fortune 500 companies. However, the study sample accounts for only 3.6 percent of the 500 firms. The results of the study shed insights on newly emerging corporate blogging in terms of its trends, issues, and possible future direction.

Practical implications

Companies that adopt blogs must realise that developing a candid dialogue with customers is the best way to build a meaningful customer relationship.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to systematically investigate the corporate blogging phenomenon.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 17 March 2020

Friederike Redlbacher

Organizations increasingly view their internal staff as a source of innovation and change and tend to involve an increasing number of organizational members in strategy

Abstract

Organizations increasingly view their internal staff as a source of innovation and change and tend to involve an increasing number of organizational members in strategy work. This inclusion is a form of decentralized strategy and usually takes place in meetings. This chapter explores how meetings can become a planned emergence strategy for unlocking endogenous innovation potential. Data have been gathered from a still ongoing field project in which employees of six public offices such as the police or fire brigade participate. The public offices’ administration is characterized by a traditional division of responsibility, meaning that strategy has so far been the business of only few people at the top of the organization. For the first time in this organization, managers and other specialists at various organizational levels have been invited to partake in the new bottom-up strategy format Think Tank. The goals of the Think Tank are to identify the needs of the employees, to find and show potential, create a subculture and encourage innovation. The Think Tank meetings are attended by highly motivated employees who want to develop further organizational goals. The investigation illustrates that exchange on an equal basis, voluntary participation and mixed teams form the foundation for planned emergence strategy meetings. The interactions within the groups are characterized by participants having a positive attitude and avoiding negatively connoted behavior. In the strategy meetings, the various organizational members are enabled to join forces and contribute to strategic renewal. Strategic renewal is essential in a volatile, uncertain, ambiguous, and complex world. This chapter illustrates how meetings can facilitate strategic renewal through planned emergence.

Details

Managing Meetings in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-227-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Milé Terziovski

Innovation is a complex process, one easily identified as being of critical importance for organisational success yet not easily managed. As international competition…

Abstract

Innovation is a complex process, one easily identified as being of critical importance for organisational success yet not easily managed. As international competition intensifies and product life cycles shorten, the pressure to innovate heightens. This paper compares the effectiveness of radical, incremental, and integrated innovation strategies on performance excellence. Hypotheses are tested in a cross‐sectional study of Australian and New Zealand manufacturing companies. Quantitative data was gathered from a large sample in a mail survey of manufacturing site managers and analysed using multivariate analysis techniques. Three performance excellence outcomes (customer satisfaction, productivity, and technological competitiveness) were used as dependent variables in the regression models. The major finding of the study is that a “bottom‐up” continuous improvement strategy is the preferred strategy to improve customer satisfaction and productivity in Australian and New Zealand manufacturing firms. On the other hand, a “top‐down” strategy is considered appropriate for increasing relative technological competitiveness. Surprisingly, an integrated strategy had the least explanatory power on performance excellence. This is consistent with the literature perception that firms have not reached a stage of systems integration and networking. The main implication of the study for practicing managers is that a continuous incremental improvement strategy is the major driving force behind any improvement effort, and that radical innovations should be used to “jump start” critical products, services, and processes intermittently. Once these strategies are in place, managers will be well on their way in achieving systems integration.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2013

Youcef Baghdadi

Many service-oriented software engineering (SOSE) methods from industry and academia claim their compliance with SOA and SO, but there is a lack of framework to assess the…

Abstract

Purpose

Many service-oriented software engineering (SOSE) methods from industry and academia claim their compliance with SOA and SO, but there is a lack of framework to assess the existing methods or to provide new ones. First, the paper questions: (Q1) to what extent an approach would consider the three aspect: service, composition, and management to deliver software solutions that are conformed to SO and SOA principles; (Q2) to what extent an approach would consider the aggregates of a method, including representation techniques, assisting tools, and inspection techniques to assess the delivered solution (service and composition), in addition to the process; and (Q3) to what extent an approach would consider the alignment of business and IT through the application of model-driven development by using standards such as model-driven architecture. Then, the paper compares four generic approaches: top-down, bottom-up, green-field, and meet-in-the-middle, within a framework, to highlight their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, the paper aims to propose a business-oriented approach that focuses on the value a business can add to its customers, whereby the value must be specified in a contract to be largely re-used.

Design/methodology/approach

This work develops a framework as an abstract model for SOSE generic methods. Then, it uses the framework as an analytical study to compare the generic methods and come up with research issues and a new method for SOSE.

Findings

A set of guidelines that a SOSE method develops should consider when selecting or developing a new method.

Research limitations/implications

Comparison of existing SOSE methods within the findings of the proposed framework. The paper has theoretical implications as the open issues provide a research roadmap towards the realization of SOA in accordance with a maturity model.

Practical implications

This has practical implications as it: provides a better understanding of the approaches, as they are ambiguously used by the existing methods; and assists developers in deciding an approach having the necessary knowledge related to its process, strengths and weaknesses.

Originality/value

None of the existing comparison framework has raised the level of abstraction up to generic methods such as top-down, green-filed, meet-in-the-middle and bottom-up.

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

John A. Parnell

To examine how a manager's strategic philosophy is influenced by his or her management level in the organization.

Abstract

Purpose

To examine how a manager's strategic philosophy is influenced by his or her management level in the organization.

Design/methodology/approach

Scales are developed to measure managers' philosophical perspectives along three key dimensions and tested with 289 managers in the United States. Refined scales are administered to 237 managers.

Findings

A manager's level in the organization influences his or her strategic philosophy. As compared to middle‐and lower‐level managers, top managers were more likely to view strategy formulation as an art, to emphasize strategic flexibility as opposed to strategic consistency, and to see strategy as top‐down process.

Research limitations/implications

No single strategic philosophy is suggested as the optimal perspective. In addition, there are multiple possible explanations for the findings. Additional research is needed. Recognizing differences in strategic philosophy can also enhance training and development efforts at the lower and middle management levels.

Practical implications

Findings lend support to the notion that one's strategic philosophy is not independent of one's management position and suggests that managers at each level may adopt perspectives that facilitate the managerial responsibilities at that level.

Originality/value

This paper provides empirical evidence for a nexus between management level and strategic philosophy, a stream of research that received only limited research interest to date.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2021

Karl Aiginger

The world order is changing, with the lead of the US waning, along with its reduced commitment to rule-based multilateralism during the past administration. China is on…

Abstract

Purpose

The world order is changing, with the lead of the US waning, along with its reduced commitment to rule-based multilateralism during the past administration. China is on the way to becoming number one again, investing abroad with primarily egoistic motives and steered by an authoritarian domestic regime. Meanwhile, the EU is striving for a new geopolitical role, while becoming more heterogenous.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper measures performance and competitiveness not only according to conventional criteria but also based on broader welfare indicators. The ultimate aim of competitiveness is to deliver well-being. Decentralized local strategies are presented, but also the need for guidance by societal goals.

Findings

What we measure matters. The EU is underperforming in per capita GDP and failing to close the gap in labour productivity towards the frontier defined by the USA. But it is leading in environmental and social indicators, has an accessible health system and provides increasing longevity. This performance nevertheless has to be improved, if climate goals should be fulfilled and upcoming new inequalities addressed.

Originality/value

Localization and place-based strategies have advantages, but also harper the danger that negative spillovers may not be minimized and positive not used. Innovation is a search process but has to be directed by goals in Europe and globally. Otherwise, change incurs high costs and many losers, fostering nationalism and populistic calls to return to a past glory that never existed.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Izhak Berkovich

Teachers' resistance to educational reform has been explored, with special attention given to the reasons driving opposition and the resistance practices employed inside…

Abstract

Purpose

Teachers' resistance to educational reform has been explored, with special attention given to the reasons driving opposition and the resistance practices employed inside school walls. These studies have not, however, examined the agenda setting strategy employed by teachers opposing new policy on the national level, nor has any extensive study focused on the messages or rhetoric characterizing their opposition. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the rhetoric and images used in web‐based campaigns by teachers to secure public support for their resistance to the “New Horizon” reform in Israel 2007 teachers' strike.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs a descriptive case study methodology to illustrate the bottom‐up political strategy employed by teachers seeking public support for their opposition to reform. Content analysis of entries and manifestos posted on prominent teachers' weblogs and partisan school web sites during Israel's 64‐day teachers' strike in 2007 was conducted. Texts discussing the reform and its leaders, as well as educational and policy issues were analyzed inductively, divided according to meaning units, and then grouped together into categories.

Findings

Data indicate that the media, and specifically the internet, are perceived as major arena for garnering legitimacy and support. Teachers' rhetoric of resistance to reform was found to be characterized by: the use of emotional and rational appeals, the attempt to present teachers as “champions of education”, the use of dramatic labeling addressed at reformist leaders, and symbolic images of political parties.

Originality/value

The paper presents a conceptual model of political processes in the education system. The findings show the agenda setting strategy as reflected in teachers' cross‐level bottom‐up attempts to influence politics. Furthermore, teachers' rhetoric in resisting educational reform shows great similarity to the rhetoric of political campaigns. Theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2003

Cynthia Dereli

This paper is based on interviews with four chief executives of district/borough authorities in a two‐tier local government area. The interviews constitute a snapshot of…

Abstract

This paper is based on interviews with four chief executives of district/borough authorities in a two‐tier local government area. The interviews constitute a snapshot of opinion from a group of people ideally placed to relate to the issue under discussion, namely the importance of strategy and strategic partnering for smaller local authorities. The paper considers the extent to which the views of this group develop or interlink with the thinking around strategy, in the literature on strategy in the private sector, and with views of public sector strategic management, particularly in the work and in the critique of the operation of the modernising agenda in the NHS. It concludes that, far from strategy being an irrelevancy to small authorities, it may be that they are ideally placed to provide insights into some of the tensions evident in the strategy debate at all levels.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

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