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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the 1970 Act…

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Abstract

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the 1970 Act (which has been amended by the Sex Discrimination Act 1975) provides:

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Managerial Law, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2007

Danny Dorling

Abstract

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Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1982

DAVID MENHENNET and JANE WAINWRIGHT

The Library provides information, documentation and research services to Members of the House of Commons. The organization of the Library and the history of POLIS (the…

Abstract

The Library provides information, documentation and research services to Members of the House of Commons. The organization of the Library and the history of POLIS (the Parliamentary On‐Line Information System) are described. The system became operational in 1980, and was set up by and is operated by Scicon Computer Services Ltd. Data entry is performed by the Library's Indexing Unit. Details of the telecommunications, software, hardware and database are given. UNIDAS retrieval software is used, and subject indexing is based on a thesaurus compiled by the Library. Most Library staff are being trained to use the retrieval facilities. Other offices of the House of Commons and of the House of Lords also have terminals linked to the system. Approved non‐Parliamentary users may also subscribe to POLIS via the public‐switched telephone network, Euronet or PSS. Other uses of computers by the Library are described.

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Journal of Documentation, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Article
Publication date: 5 July 2023

Toby Keene, Kristen Pammer, Eryn Newman and Bill Lord

Paramedics play important roles in healthcare, yet little is known about their decision-making. There is evidence that thinking style is associated with individual preference for…

Abstract

Purpose

Paramedics play important roles in healthcare, yet little is known about their decision-making. There is evidence that thinking style is associated with individual preference for intuitive or deliberative decision-making.

Design/methodology/approach

Australian and New Zealand paramedics (n = 103; mean age: 38.7; mean 12 years’ experience; 44% female) and paramedic students (n = 101; mean age: 25.7; 59% female) completed a thinking style survey measuring active open-mindedness (AOT), close mindedness (CMT), preference for intuitive thinking (PIT) and preference for effortful thinking (PET). Participants also completed the 7-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) to assess ability to override an attractive but incorrect intuition.

Findings

With prior exposure to the CRT controlled, regression analysis found increasing AOT and decreasing age predicted cognitive reflection across all participants (R2/R2 adjusted: 0.198/0.157; F(10, 192) = 4.752, p < 0.001). There were moderate correlations between CMT, age and paramedic experience. There was no difference between paramedics and student performance on the CRT, though more students reported prior exposure to the items (33.7 vs 16.5%; Chi-square (2) = 8.02, p = 0.02). Those who reported prior exposure to the CRT scored significantly higher than those who had not (5.08 [1.44] vs 3.87 [1.70]; F(2, 201) = 14.34, p < 0.001).

Originality/value

Self-reported AOT was associated with cognitive reflection and indicates a role for open-mindedness in paramedics to support decision-making.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 February 2022

Toby Keene, Kristen Pammer, Bill Lord and Carol Shipp

Previous research has shown that paramedics form intuitive impressions based on limited “pre-arrival” dispatch information and this subsequently affects their diagnosis. However…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research has shown that paramedics form intuitive impressions based on limited “pre-arrival” dispatch information and this subsequently affects their diagnosis. However, this observation has never been experimentally studied.

Design/methodology/approach

This was an experimental study of 83 Australian undergraduate paramedics and 65 Australian paramedics with median 14 years' experience (Range: 1–32 years). Participants responded to written vignettes in two parts that aimed to induce an intuitive impression by placing participants under time pressure and with a secondary task, followed by a diagnosis made without distraction or time pressure. The vignettes varied the likelihood of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) and measured self-reports of typicality and confidence. Answer fluency, which is the ease with which the answer comes to mind, was also measured.

Findings

More participants exposed to the likely pre-arrival vignette recorded a final diagnosis of ACS, than those exposed to unlikely pre-arrival information (0.85 [95%CI: 0.78, 0.90] vs 0.74 [95%CI: 0.66, 0.81]; p = 0.03). This effect was greater in paramedics with more than 14 years' experience (0.94 [95%CI: 0.78, 0.99] vs 0.67 [95%CI: 0.48, 0.81]; p = 0.01). Answer fluency and confidence were associated with the impression, while the impression and confidence were associated with final diagnosis.

Practical implications

The authors have experimentally shown that pre-arrival information can affect subsequent diagnosis. The most experienced paramedics were more likely to be affected.

Originality/value

This is the first experimental study of diagnostic decision-making in paramedics and paramedic students.

Details

International Journal of Emergency Services, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2047-0894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1977

THE Reference Department of Paisley Central Library today occupies the room which was the original Public Library built in 1870 and opened to the public in April 1871. Since that…

Abstract

THE Reference Department of Paisley Central Library today occupies the room which was the original Public Library built in 1870 and opened to the public in April 1871. Since that date two extensions to the building have taken place. The first, in 1882, provided a separate room for both Reference and Lending libraries; the second, opened in 1938, provided a new Children's Department. Together with the original cost of the building, these extensions were entirely financed by Sir Peter Coats, James Coats of Auchendrane and Daniel Coats respectively. The people of Paisley indeed owe much to this one family, whose generosity was great. They not only provided the capital required but continued to donate many useful and often extremely valuable works of reference over the many years that followed. In 1975 Paisley Library was incorporated in the new Renfrew District library service.

Details

Library Review, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

In order to succeed in an action under the Equal Pay Act 1970, should the woman and the man be employed by the same employer on like work at the same time or would the woman still…

Abstract

In order to succeed in an action under the Equal Pay Act 1970, should the woman and the man be employed by the same employer on like work at the same time or would the woman still be covered by the Act if she were employed on like work in succession to the man? This is the question which had to be solved in Macarthys Ltd v. Smith. Unfortunately it was not. Their Lordships interpreted the relevant section in different ways and since Article 119 of the Treaty of Rome was also subject to different interpretations, the case has been referred to the European Court of Justice.

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Managerial Law, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1909

MR. F. W. F. ARNAUD, the Public Analyst for the Borough of Portsmouth, delivered a lecture on this subject at the Town Hall on April 27. The lecturer commenced his address by…

Abstract

MR. F. W. F. ARNAUD, the Public Analyst for the Borough of Portsmouth, delivered a lecture on this subject at the Town Hall on April 27. The lecturer commenced his address by stating that many of the objections to the use of certain preservatives which he might have occasion to put forward were not necessarily his own individual objections, but were the objections of many scientific men who had dealt with all sides of this difficult subject. There was a tendency on the part of some people to regard preservatives as disinfectants, but disinfectants and antiseptics were two different things. A disinfectant not only retarded the growth of microbes, but actually killed them, while an antiseptic preservative merely retarded their growth or formation. Two common antiseptics were sugar and salt. It had been contended that a small dose of a chemical preservative was preferable to a dose of microbes. The effect of a preservative was not to kill the life already present, but to prevent the free multiplication of the organisms present, and the swallowing of a dose of preservative did not necessarily prevent the swallowing of a dose of microbes. There were many old forms of preserving food, such as the use of sugar for fruit and condensed milk; of vinegar for vegetables; and the process of smoking for bacon and fish, smoke being very destructive to microbes; but the oldest form of preservation was the process of salting meat and fish. Another form of preservation was the method of preventing the access of air to perishable articles, as in the cases of eggs and lard. Then there was drying, as in the case of fruit, and chilling, or freezing, as in the cases of meat, milk, poultry, and fish. The temperatures employed for freezing food varied considerably, and depended chiefly upon the length of time during which storage was necessary. If it were only desired to keep meat for a week or two, a low temperature was not necessary, but one of 40 deg. F. was sufficient. Any cooling process was equivalent to the use of a great deal of chemical preservative. A cooling to 50 deg. P. was equivalent to the addition of boric acid to the extent of .05 per cent. At a normal summer temperature of 70 deg. P., two microbes would produce 62,100 in the course of twenty‐four hours; hence the necessity for cooling articles of food. The drawback to most of these methods of preservation was that sugar, salt, and cold were not applicable in every case. Exclusion of air and subsequent sterilisation had their drawbacks also. When sterilisation was complete and the air was exhausted, no putrefaction could take place, and the food should remain indefinitely unchanged. In the matter of tinned meat, the drawback lay chiefly in the failure to ensure complete sterilisation, and in the dissolving of tin, and occasionally lead, from the metal enclosing the food. In the case of tinned meat putrefaction to any considerable extent could be easily recognised by the blown condition of the tin and an absence of the inrush of air when the tin was pierced. Such food was a source of great danger, and if eaten the meat was liable to give rise to ptomaine poisoning—which was occasioned by eating the poisonous products produced by various bacteria. The danger of metallic poisoning could be largely overcome by the use of glass or earthenware vessels. Preservatives in use at the present time were: Benzoates, fluorides, formalin, salicylic acid, sulphites, saccharin, and beta naphthol, generally used singly, though there were some very complicated preservatives on the market. With reference to the use of salt and sugar as preservatives, little or nothing could be said against their use, for sugar was in itself a food and had a well‐known food value. Salt, too, was an essential constituent of our food, for without the elements of which it was composed we could not exist. Naturally, the assimilation of a large quantity of salt was not desirable, but it could not be urged, as, for instance, in the case of boric acid, that it was a substance foreign to the constituents of the human organism, for it was indispensable. Boric acid, however, played no part in any of the essential life processes.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

J.R. Carby‐Hall

In the Foreword to the first Annual Report of the Commissioner for the Rights of Trade Union Members, Mrs.Gill Rowlands says “As Commissioner I am able to provide material…

Abstract

In the Foreword to the first Annual Report of the Commissioner for the Rights of Trade Union Members, Mrs.Gill Rowlands says “As Commissioner I am able to provide material assistance to union members contemplating or taking certain proceedings in connection with … matters specified [in] … the 1988 Act. If assistance is granted, the applicant will know that he/she will not be placed at a disadvantage by a lack of ability to obtain legal advice or pay legal costs in connection with those proceedings.”

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Managerial Law, vol. 34 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Georgios I. Zekos

Compares and contrasts the contractual role of bills of lading in the context of Greek, US and English law. Discusses the legal status and contractual roles of these lading bills

Abstract

Compares and contrasts the contractual role of bills of lading in the context of Greek, US and English law. Discusses the legal status and contractual roles of these lading bills in the context of the legislative provisions and associated case law in each of the three countries. Concludes that the role of these bills is unsettled and there is no uniform perception. Recommends measures involving amendments to English legislation, to consolidate the regulation of international trade.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

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