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Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article

Chetan Kapoor and Delbert Tesar

The objective of this work was to demonstrate a novel approach to human machine interaction that seamlessly uses teleoperation and automation in a complex environment.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this work was to demonstrate a novel approach to human machine interaction that seamlessly uses teleoperation and automation in a complex environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This work leverages developments in the area of operational software Operational Software Components for Advanced Robotics (OSCAR), decision making, human‐machine interface, and motion planning. This demonstration uses a 17 degrees‐of‐freedom (DOF) dual arm robot that is equipped with modern tool changers, crash protectors, force‐torque sensors and electrical and pneumatic power at the tools. Four different end‐effector tools are also provided. These are electric grippers, electric rotary saw, electric drill, and a pneumatic spray gun. The system can be used both in teleoperation and automation mode. In teleoperation mode, the user has a choice of five different input devices. These are computer keyboard, spaceball and spacemouse, RSI manual controller and kraft force feedback controller. Automation is performed using a novel graphical user interface with 3D graphics used for previewing and verifying manipulator motion. Automation tasks that are demonstrated include automatic grasping, sawing, drilling, spray painting, point‐to‐point motion, and teaching. The controller for the dual arm system is developed using OSCAR and supports a variety of decision‐making algorithms and obstacle avoidance. The integration of this controller with the input devices and human machine interface is done using a novel protocol that is based on Extensible Markup Language (XML) for maximum reuse and distributed integration. This protocol is further based on a well‐defined and scalable XML schema that can be easily extended as controller functionality is changed and/or additional input devices are added.

Findings

It is necessary to combine automation with teleoperation to reduce worker fatigue and also provide higher value robotic functions. This is possible as most remote tasks can be broken down into structured and unstructured components. On the integration front, we see XML‐based integration providing a loosely coupled system that can make interoperability between various robot systems possible. For end‐effector tooling, it is better to have special purpose tools that can be switched out versus the use of a general purpose tool such as a robotic hand.

Research limitations/implications

This research was done in a laboratory environment, and as such, its application in the field will require partnering with a commercial entity. Force‐feedback on manual controllers during teleoperation was not very effective. In fact, providing visual queues to the operator about the forces were a better guide to the operator.

Practical implications

The software for this work provides obstacle avoidance capability. The obstacle avoidance is based on a known world model that is derived from a CAD environment. In reality, this model will have to be sensed in real‐time, and decoded into a geometric model. Significant work in this area needs to be done.

Originality/value

The software developed for this work was based on the OSCAR software framework. This is a unique framework that at its core uses performance criteria to control the behavior of the robot during teleoperation and automation. The value of this work is that it shows as completely feasible the control of a 17 DOF dual arm system using the latest integration technologies (such as XML), integrated simulation, multiple tools and multiple input devices. It also shows that all these choices can be provided to an operator through a single user interface.

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Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article

C.T. Irwin

FLEXIBILITY has always been associated with robotic systems. However, once a robot has been integrated into an application, the robot is no longer flexible but becomes a…

Abstract

FLEXIBILITY has always been associated with robotic systems. However, once a robot has been integrated into an application, the robot is no longer flexible but becomes a part of the tooling. This loss of flexibility is attributed to the use of rigid, costly tooling, which includes end effector tooling.

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Assembly Automation, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Book part

Irina Farquhar and Alan Sorkin

This study proposes targeted modernization of the Department of Defense (DoD's) Joint Forces Ammunition Logistics information system by implementing the optimized…

Abstract

This study proposes targeted modernization of the Department of Defense (DoD's) Joint Forces Ammunition Logistics information system by implementing the optimized innovative information technology open architecture design and integrating Radio Frequency Identification Device data technologies and real-time optimization and control mechanisms as the critical technology components of the solution. The innovative information technology, which pursues the focused logistics, will be deployed in 36 months at the estimated cost of $568 million in constant dollars. We estimate that the Systems, Applications, Products (SAP)-based enterprise integration solution that the Army currently pursues will cost another $1.5 billion through the year 2014; however, it is unlikely to deliver the intended technical capabilities.

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The Value of Innovation: Impact on Health, Life Quality, Safety, and Regulatory Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-551-2

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Article

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

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Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article

Sepehr Abrishami, Jack Goulding and Farzad Rahimian

The integration and automation of the whole design and implementation process have become a pivotal factor in construction projects. Problems of process integration…

Abstract

Purpose

The integration and automation of the whole design and implementation process have become a pivotal factor in construction projects. Problems of process integration, particularly at the conceptual design stage, often manifest through a number of significant areas, from design representation, cognition and translation to process fragmentation and loss of design integrity. Whilst building information modelling (BIM) applications can be used to support design automation, particularly through the modelling, amendment and management stages, they do not explicitly provide whole design integration. This is a significant challenge. However, advances in generative design now offer significant potential for enhancing the design experience to mitigate this challenge.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach outlined in this paper specifically addresses BIM deficiencies at the conceptual design stage, where the core drivers and indicators of BIM and generative design are identified and mapped into a generative BIM (G-BIM) framework and subsequently embedded into a G-BIM prototype. This actively engages generative design methods into a single dynamic BIM environment to support the early conceptual design process. The developed prototype followed the CIFE “horseshoe” methodology of aligning theoretical research with scientific methods to procure architecture, construction and engineering (AEC)-based solutions. This G-BIM prototype was also tested and validated through a focus group workshop engaging five AEC domain experts.

Findings

The G-BIM prototype presents a valuable set of rubrics to support the conceptual design stage using generative design. It benefits from the advanced features of BIM tools in relation to illustration and collaboration (coupled with BIM's parametric change management features).

Research limitations/implications

This prototype has been evaluated through multiple projects and scenarios. However, additional test data is needed to further improve system veracity using conventional and non-standard real-life design settings (and contexts). This will be reported in later works.

Originality/value

Originality and value rest with addressing the shortcomings of previous research on automation during the design process. It also addresses novel computational issues relating to the implementation of generative design systems, where, for example, instead of engaging static and formal description of the domain concepts, G-BIM actively enhances the applicability of BIM during the early design stages to generate optimised (and more purposeful) design solutions.

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Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article

Shakeel Ahmad Khan and Ghulam Ayesha

The purpose of this study is to investigate the key features of information management systems (IMSs) for automation in university libraries. This study also highlights…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the key features of information management systems (IMSs) for automation in university libraries. This study also highlights the use of library information management systems in university libraries and the satisfaction of university librarians in using various IMS.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is quantitative in nature. A survey research method has been applied to achieve the research objectives. Purposive sampling has been used to select the targeted population which consisted of 157 librarians working in university libraries. Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to analyze the collected data by using SPSS software.

Findings

Free and open source software are widely used in university libraries to manage the bibliographic information of library material. KOHA is the most used software for library automation in university libraries of Pakistan. The key features of library information management system (IMS) include reliability and security of the software, user-friendly interface, advance searching options, use of library standards (MARC, Uni MARC, RDA), online upgradation, technical support of developing company, shared cataloging, multilingual features of software, etc (See Figure 4). The study recommends that the above-mentioned features must be considered by university librarians when selecting any software for library automation. Results showed that apart from the use of KOHA software, there are also some other software which are being used for library automation in university libraries of Pakistan. These systems include; Virtua, Library Management System (LMS), and Library Information Management Systems (LIMSs).

Practical implications

This study has practical implications for university librarians in Pakistan as well as in other countries. Librarians can use the results of this study as a blueprint before selecting any information management system to automate the library record.

Originality/value

This study identifies the core features of IMS for automation in libraries. These features have been recommended by informational professionals who have been working in automated libraries and possess adequate professional experience in using library automation software.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article

Robert L. Engle and Michael L. Barnes

A 42‐question survey on usage and beliefs regarding sales force automation (SFA) was collected, along with actual sales performance data, on 1,641 sales representatives of…

Abstract

A 42‐question survey on usage and beliefs regarding sales force automation (SFA) was collected, along with actual sales performance data, on 1,641 sales representatives of a large international pharmaceutical company in Germany, England, and the United States. The relationships between beliefs and usage and individual sales performance were examined both within and across countries and a cost‐benefit analysis completed. Factor analysis identified five usage groupings including: Planning and territory management; Administration and external information exchange; Within company communication; Active sales tool; and Passive sales tool. Significant usage, belief, and performance differences between countries were found, with the use of SFA explaining 16.4 per cent of the variance in sales performance across countries. General findings indicated that management and representatives believed SFA to be useful. US$22.2 million in sales increases were found to be attributable to SFA usage. At the same time, non‐discounted cash flow payback periods were found to range from 6.2 to 7.4 years. Potential contributing factors and implications are discussed.

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Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article

Texas instruments has a cheap starter kit for newcomers to AI computing. For a mere £135, five video tapes of the highlights of the company's satellite symposia on AI are…

Abstract

Texas instruments has a cheap starter kit for newcomers to AI computing. For a mere £135, five video tapes of the highlights of the company's satellite symposia on AI are provided. Also included are “hands‐on” PC‐compatible demonstration software, a 35 mm colour slide presentation on the theory and benefits of AI, a set of literature which contains two copies of “Understanding Artificial Intelligence” — Texas Instrument's book on AI — and a copy of an issue of Intelligence, its AI newsletter. The company will provide full details; write to: TI/AI Starter Kit, PO Box 50, Market Harborough, Leicestershire, UK.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Book part

Chun Kit Lok

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption…

Abstract

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption behavior of E-payment systems that employ smart card technology becomes a research area that is of particular value and interest to both IS researchers and professionals. However, research interest focuses mostly on why a smart card-based E-payment system results in a failure or how the system could have grown into a success. This signals the fact that researchers have not had much opportunity to critically review a smart card-based E-payment system that has gained wide support and overcome the hurdle of critical mass adoption. The Octopus in Hong Kong has provided a rare opportunity for investigating smart card-based E-payment system because of its unprecedented success. This research seeks to thoroughly analyze the Octopus from technology adoption behavior perspectives.

Cultural impacts on adoption behavior are one of the key areas that this research posits to investigate. Since the present research is conducted in Hong Kong where a majority of population is Chinese ethnicity and yet is westernized in a number of aspects, assuming that users in Hong Kong are characterized by eastern or western culture is less useful. Explicit cultural characteristics at individual level are tapped into here instead of applying generalization of cultural beliefs to users to more accurately reflect cultural bias. In this vein, the technology acceptance model (TAM) is adapted, extended, and tested for its applicability cross-culturally in Hong Kong on the Octopus. Four cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede are included in this study, namely uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, individualism, and Confucian Dynamism (long-term orientation), to explore their influence on usage behavior through the mediation of perceived usefulness.

TAM is also integrated with the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) to borrow two constructs in relation to innovative characteristics, namely relative advantage and compatibility, in order to enhance the explanatory power of the proposed research model. Besides, the normative accountability of the research model is strengthened by embracing two social influences, namely subjective norm and image. As the last antecedent to perceived usefulness, prior experience serves to bring in the time variation factor to allow level of prior experience to exert both direct and moderating effects on perceived usefulness.

The resulting research model is analyzed by partial least squares (PLS)-based Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. The research findings reveal that all cultural dimensions demonstrate direct effect on perceived usefulness though the influence of uncertainty avoidance is found marginally significant. Other constructs on innovative characteristics and social influences are validated to be significant as hypothesized. Prior experience does indeed significantly moderate the two influences that perceived usefulness receives from relative advantage and compatibility, respectively. The research model has demonstrated convincing explanatory power and so may be employed for further studies in other contexts. In particular, cultural effects play a key role in contributing to the uniqueness of the model, enabling it to be an effective tool to help critically understand increasingly internationalized IS system development and implementation efforts. This research also suggests several practical implications in view of the findings that could better inform managerial decisions for designing, implementing, or promoting smart card-based E-payment system.

Details

E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

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