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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 27 January 2022

Arindam Das and Arindam Gupta

The purpose of this paper is to look at the contemporaneous movement of the stock market indices of the five most COVID-infected countries, namely, the USA, Brazil, Russia, India…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to look at the contemporaneous movement of the stock market indices of the five most COVID-infected countries, namely, the USA, Brazil, Russia, India and UK after the first wave along with market indices of the three least affected countries, namely, Hong Kong, South Korea and New Zealand during the first wave.

Design/methodology/approach

Data have been collected from the website of Yahoo finance on daily closing values of five indices. Augmented Dickey–Fuller test with its three forms has been applied to check the stationarity of the select five indices at the level and at the first difference before the pandemic, during the pandemic and post-first wave of the pandemic. Johansen cointegration test is applied to find out that there is no cointegration among the select five indices.

Findings

The five countries do neither fall in the same economic and political zone nor do they have the same economic status. But during the period of pandemic and the new-normal period, the cointegration is very distinct. The developing and developed nations thus stood at an indifferentiable stage of the economic crisis which is well reflected in their stock markets. However, the least three COVID-affected countries do not show any cointegration during the pandemic time.

Originality/value

The comovement even seen during the normal time in the other studies is not compared to a similar period in earlier years. But, in this study to look into the exclusive effect of COVID pandemic, the period most affected with it is compared with the period after it and that in the immediate past year had no effect.

Details

IIM Ranchi journal of management studies, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2754-0138

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 September 2018

Arindam Das and Dimple Grover

This paper aims to investigate the unconscious aspects of information technology (IT) outsourcing decisions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the unconscious aspects of information technology (IT) outsourcing decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers extend the current literature and existing knowledge on the economic aspects of outsourcing decisions in a study on human behaviour and decision-making. Some vulnerabilities related to decision-making on outsourcing have been identified and mechanisms to address these vulnerabilities have been proposed.

Findings

Although IT outsourcing is a widely accepted practice, the vulnerabilities that result from unconscious bias can outweigh the supposed economic gains. However, with support from research in psychology, it is possible to minimize bias and ensure positive value creation when engaging in outsourcing.

Originality/value

The authors argue for a multi-disciplinary approach, for decision-making on outsourcing, that integrates the psychological elements of decision-making with economic value-creation logic. The proposed practitioner-oriented approach is used in conjunction with traditional approaches to decision-making. Specifically, it addresses the uncertainties that may occur when interpreting and inferring information that influences outsourcing decisions.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 January 2022

Arindam Das

A key characteristic for a family firm, preservation of socioemotional wealth, may appear to be at conflict with the concept of organizational diversity. The authors investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

A key characteristic for a family firm, preservation of socioemotional wealth, may appear to be at conflict with the concept of organizational diversity. The authors investigate how organizational diversity, captured through heterogeneity in ownership structure, diversity in the senior management team, interfaces with the concept of the socioemotional wealth of family businesses in an emerging economy, when these firms pursue inorganic growth strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the concepts of socioemotional wealth, behavioral agency theory and bifurcation bias, the authors develop perspectives on how ownership structure, family influence in executive management and institutional shareholding influence a family firm's internationalization strategies captured through propensity to pursue cross-border M&A – an activity that may threaten the preservation of socioemotional wealth. The authors also explore the role of business group affiliation, another organizational diversity construct, and contingent parameters like past financial performance and export intensity in this study. The authors take pooled data over 15 years, involving 346 large firms from India, which are family-controlled, to carry out the study.

Findings

The authors’ empirical analysis shows that family stake in the company and family members' presence in the executive team negatively influence the propensity to pursue cross-border M&A activities. A firm's affiliation to a business group moderates these negative relationships. On the other hand, the presence of institutional shareholders, positive past financial performance and export intensity positively influence cross-border M&A propensity.

Originality/value

The results establish that family businesses' attempts to preserve socioemotional wealth may come at the cost of promoting organizational diversity.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 May 2023

Arindam Das

Although the integration of sustainability into business strategies and operations has received considerable scholarly attention, little is known about how sustainability…

1173

Abstract

Purpose

Although the integration of sustainability into business strategies and operations has received considerable scholarly attention, little is known about how sustainability initiatives across the extended value chain affect this integration. This study aims to analyze the impact of multinational corporations’ supply chain sustainability initiatives on their environmental, social and corporate governance (ESG) performance and the moderating role of the key country-level factors of the multinational’s headquarters.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzes data published by the top 201 multinationals among Fortune Global 500 companies over the period 2011–2021 on their attempts to integrate sustainability measures in extended supply chains and the resultant impact on their ESG scores. A fixed-effect model is used in the primary empirical study.

Findings

Results indicate that managerial interventions through a more robust supply chain policy framework, monitoring mechanisms, corrective actions and training initiatives lead to better ESG-environment pillar performance for multinationals. Additionally, the ESG-environment pillar performance is influenced by the socioeconomic model and country-level ESG risks of the nation where the multinational is headquartered.

Originality/value

The implications of this study are vital for understanding the criticality of sustainability initiatives in the supply chain for a firm’s overall ESG performance. To attain better levels of sustainable performance, multinationals must assume a stewardship position and deploy sustainability initiatives in their extended supply chain.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2021

Vivek Kumar Dubey and Arindam Das

This paper aims to investigate the effect of governance – a proxy for network effects on small and medium enterprises (SME) growth through access to new markets. Specifically…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of governance – a proxy for network effects on small and medium enterprises (SME) growth through access to new markets. Specifically, investigate how export intensity (EI) and performance are affected. This study also tests related theories, given the growth in the post-liberalization setting of a developing economy. Specifically, this study tests Uppsala and born global (BG) perspectives for internationalization and resource-based view for performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collect secondary data for each SME over a 20 year period from a growth-oriented developing economy – India. This period is after the liberalization of the Indian economy. Thus, the authors test the hypotheses in this context. The authors expect that exports would surge for SMEs given the governance structures considered. The authors consider several governance modes and two types of product classifications, namely, products and services.

Findings

The authors find conditional support for the two models – indicating that governance structures do not consistently support finding new markets. Further, given the governance structure, EI is not consistently a means to improved performance. This is contrary to the expectations. However, at the same time, the authors do find evidence that governance matters and affects products and services differently.

Research limitations/implications

While the authors conduct research in India which has a variety of cultures and state policies, the authors still believe comparative study with multi-country data from developing countries might bring further insights. Further, primary data would also help to understand governance and motivational effects (the authors did not consider the later). Implications: The authors believe the research will have implications for policy since the authors find effects of governance. Hence, specific policies that improve the performance of a governance type could be adopted.

Practical implications

Although SMEs are affected by many factors, the authors find significant effects for important variables. Hence, the authors believe the government could use the study to design proper policies so that new markets could be discovered through different governance forms, through strategic investment and capacity building.

Social implications

SMEs are a key part of the social fabric of a society/country. The work deals with how SMEs could be helped. Hence, the authors believe the work has important implications for society. Further, as the work deals with large firm-SME interfaces, the authors also inform how these different governance structures are performing and where attention is needed.

Originality/value

The authors find that certain governance-type and SME-type work well together. Further, networks through the governance structures help find new markets – depending on SME-type. The authors find partial support for the Uppsala model and also for the BG model, again depending on the SME-type.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 10 March 2022

Arindam Das and Sumantra Guha

On completion of analysis of this case, students would be able to: appreciate the context of a typical delisting decision of a public company that is part of a large business…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

On completion of analysis of this case, students would be able to: appreciate the context of a typical delisting decision of a public company that is part of a large business group; analyze the complex nature of the relationships among the promoter shareholders, minority shareholders, government-controlled financial institutions, independent directors and executive directors in such a situation of transfer of value; and develop the best possible course of action for the promoters, independent directors and public shareholders, keeping into consideration the principles of corporate governance and the objective of shareholders’ wealth maximization.

Case overview/synopsis

The case presents an opportunity to examine the corporate restructuring and governance issues associated with the delisting attempt of India-based mining company Vedanta Ltd., by its London-based parent company, Vedanta Resources. The case focuses on the conflict of interests between the promoters of a business group and the public shareholders of a subsidiary, and the pivotal roles independent directors and proxy advisory firms play in supporting the public shareholders.

Complexity academic level

The case can be discussed in a graduate-level corporate strategy course that deals with restructuring and governance issues in companies, especially large group companies. It can also be discussed in a course of corporate governance where students have the opportunity to understand the potential conflict between promoters and other shareholders, and the moderating roles the independent directors and institutions may play in resolving such conflicts.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only.

Subject code

CSS 11: Strategy.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2023

Ishwar Haritas and Arindam Das

This paper aims to present an approach for business organizations, especially multinational enterprises (MNEs), to pivot their focus from the United Nations sustainable…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an approach for business organizations, especially multinational enterprises (MNEs), to pivot their focus from the United Nations sustainable development goals (UN SDGs) to simple doable goals (SDoGs) so that the probability of impactful and sustainable outcomes increases significantly.

Design/methodology/approach

Through multilevel analyses, the paper identifies the current challenges in the firm-level implementation of the SDGs. Consequently, it synthesizes an integrated solution that can help MNEs create sustainable business models, contributing to realizing the SDGs.

Findings

The sporadic and chaotic adoption of SDGs and ambiguous outcomes reported by businesses are due to the following: SDG adoption choices are driven by the materiality effect; the differences between the UN-defined government targets and business-level targets, often chosen by businesses on their own, make an aggregation of performances infeasible; lack of validation of the firm-level reporting leads to “greenwashing”; focusing less on business model transformation and more on reporting hinders the achievement of true sustainability; and lack of coordination and integration in actionizing among stakeholders limits the holistic change that the SDGs are expected to bring to society. Based on the Prêt à faire – Gestalt matrix, the proposed framework shifts the organization’s focus to the fundamental aspects of the purpose, strategy and business sustainability, and demonstrates how the resultant SDoGs effectively contribute to the realization of the SDGs. The matrix in the framework classifies an MNE based on its overall organizational readiness to seize business opportunities and helps pursue a course of action toward true sustainability.

Originality/value

The guidelines from the proposed framework offer different strategic paths for the MNE to achieve parity, temporary advantage, and, finally, sustained competitive advantage. This transformative approach enables businesses to develop their roadmaps for achieving business sustainability and supporting the realization of the SDGs.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2021

Arindam Das and Sourav Dey

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize a manufacturing value network for digital multinationals that combines the global reach of multinationals, the power of platform…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize a manufacturing value network for digital multinationals that combines the global reach of multinationals, the power of platform business models and digitalization. Toward this, the authors assess the critical roles platform ecosystems, and Industry 4.0 play in resolving the key challenges associated with asset specificity, location specificity and information asymmetry, inherent in the conventional business models of manufacturing multinationals.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors take an exploratory approach in reviewing industry literature and analyzing implementations of digital technologies in manufacturing and supply chain processes at four large manufacturing multinationals from diverse industry sectors, from electronics to packaged food production. The authors also identify how value-creation activities are relocated, and how players collaborate to create and capture value. Consequently, the authors abstract a framework for global value network of manufacturing multinationals.

Findings

With changing definitions of industry, competition and organizations, the authors’ framework for manufacturing value network establishes the ways digitalization can be integrated in the global businesses of manufacturing multinationals, realizing the combinatorial effect of Industry 4.0 and platform ecosystems. The transformation redefines the ways multinationals have been leveraging their ownership-location-internalization (OLI) advantages. The authors recognize that the multinational orchestrator plays a critical role in creating shared goals for platform participants and governing the dynamics. In addition, the participants' propensity to trust the platform and the perceived trustworthiness of the orchestrator shape the scope and boundaries of the platform.

Originality/value

The authors raise critical questions about the role of multinational orchestrator and trust dimensions. In addition, the OLI-platform paradigm that incorporates the combinatorial effect of platform ecosystem and Industry 4.0 explains how multinationals create and capture value in new ways.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Arindam Das

This paper aims to analyze outbound investments from China at the time of economic crisis caused due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and how target valuation and the host…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze outbound investments from China at the time of economic crisis caused due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and how target valuation and the host country’s inbound investment policies influence the acquisition intents. As firms witness low valuations during an economic downturn, they become attractive targets for opportunistic buyers, who may be driven by motives beyond business and influenced by the home country’s political agenda. Such attempts are countered with the adoption of restrictive investment policies in host countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses secondary data on cross-border acquisitions from China over the past year and compares the characteristics of these acquisitions with cross-border acquisitions of acquirers from other large developed and developing economies.

Findings

Statistical analyzes show that there are significant differences in the way acquirers from China pursue strategic asset seeking, creeping and control seeking acquisitions during the pandemic and the pre-pandemic period. This paper also observes that reduced valuation of the target, due to economic downturn or otherwise, result in greater propensity in strategic asset seeking acquisitions by Chinese acquirers. At the same time, adverse policies at host nations negatively influence the strategic asset seeking propensity of these acquirers. In addition, the premium in the valuation of target assets during the pandemic does not drop significantly when compared with that of the pre-pandemic period.

Originality/value

With the outbreak of COVID-19 and its concomitant economic impact across the globe, the study brings forwards insights on predatory foreign direct investment (FDI) and explores how policy responses in host countries can be comprehensive rather than disembedded and unilateral.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1990

Suresh Ankolekar, Arindam Das Gupta and G. Srinivasan

The defective coin problem involves the identification of a defective coin, if any, and ascertaining the nature of the defect (heavier/lighter) from a set of coins containing at…

Abstract

The defective coin problem involves the identification of a defective coin, if any, and ascertaining the nature of the defect (heavier/lighter) from a set of coins containing at the most one defective coin, using an equal‐arm‐pan‐balance. An algorithmic analysis of the problem is considered. The solution strategy to minimise the number of weighings required to detect the defective coin is based on a problem reduction approach involving successive decomposition of the problem into subproblems until it is trivially solved. The algorithm is capable of generating all possible optimal solutions.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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