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Article

U. Soy, A. Demir and F. Findik

The main goal of the present study is to investigate the friction and wear behaviors of aluminum matrix composites with an A360 matrix reinforced with SiC, B4C and SiC/B4C…

Abstract

Purpose

The main goal of the present study is to investigate the friction and wear behaviors of aluminum matrix composites with an A360 matrix reinforced with SiC, B4C and SiC/B4C particles.

Design/methodology/approach

Un‐reinforced aluminum casting alloy, Al/SiC, Al/B4C and Al/SiC/B4C aluminum composites were prepared for the present study. Friction and wear tests of aluminum and its composites versus AISI316L stainless steel were carried out for dry sliding condition using by a pin‐on‐disc arrangement. Tests were realized at the sliding speed of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 ms−1 and under the loads of 10, 20 and 30 N. The microstructures of the present composites were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis.

Findings

The coefficient of friction of the composites is approximately 25‐30 percent lower than that of the un‐reinforced aluminum. The specific wear rate of the aluminum and its composites decreases with the increase in load and increases with the increment of sliding speed. Un‐reinforced aluminum has specific wear rate value of 1.73×10−13 which is the highest specific wear rate, while Al+17%SiC has specific wear rate value of 2.25×10−13 m2 N−1 which is the lowest specific wear rate among the tested materials. The average specific wear rates for Al+17%B4C, Al+17%SiC/B4C and Al+17%SiC composites are obtained about 49, 79 and 160 percent lower than aluminum wear rate under the same test conditions, respectively.

Originality/value

In the present study, composites were prepared by pressured infiltration technique. The employed composites are important in industry due to their higher wear resistance, light in weight and less thermal distortion comparing to conventional composites. Also, wear behavior of Al/B4C, Al/SiC/B4C and Al/SiC composites produced by pressured infiltration technique were not studied very much earlier, therefore more explanation about these composites were proposed.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 63 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article

M. Kathiresan and T. Sornakumar

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are engineered materials formed by the combination of metal matrix and reinforcement materials. They have a stiff and hard reinforcing phase…

Abstract

Purpose

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are engineered materials formed by the combination of metal matrix and reinforcement materials. They have a stiff and hard reinforcing phase in metallic matrix. The matrix includes metals such as aluminum, magnesium, copper and their alloys. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of an aluminum alloy‐aluminum oxide composite using a new combination of vortex method and pressure die casting technique and the subsequent tribological studies.

Design/methodology/approach

An aluminum alloy‐aluminum oxide composite was developed using vortex method and pressure die casting technique. The aluminum alloy‐1 wt% aluminum oxide was die cast using LM24 aluminum alloy as the matrix material and aluminum oxide particles of average particle size of 16 μm as a reinforcement material. The friction and wear characteristics of the composite were assessed using a pin‐on‐disc set‐up; the test specimen, 8‐mm diameter cylindrical specimens of the composite, was mated against hardened En 36 steel disc of 65 HRC. The tests were conducted with normal loads of 9.8, 29.4 and 49 N and sliding speeds of 3, 4 and 5 m/s for a sliding distance of 5,000 m. The frictional load and the wear were measured at regular intervals of sliding distance.

Findings

The effects of normal load and sliding speed on tribological properties of the MMC pin on sliding with En 36 steel disc were evaluated. The wear rate increases with normal load and sliding speed. The specific wear rate marginally decreases with normal load. The coefficient of friction decreases with normal load and sliding speed. The wear and friction coefficient of the aluminum alloy‐aluminum oxide MMC are lower than the plain aluminum alloy. The wear and coefficient of friction of the entire specimens are lower.

Practical implications

The development of aluminum alloy‐aluminum oxide composite using vortex method and pressure die casting technique will revolutionize the automobile and other industries, since a near net shape at low cost and very good mechanical properties are obtained.

Originality/value

There are few papers available on the development of (or tribological studies of) MMCs including aluminium/aluminium alloy‐ceramic composites developed by combination of vortex method and pressure die casting technique.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 62 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article

Praveen Kumar Bannaravuri and Anil Kumar Birru

The purpose of this paper is to determine the use of BLA along with SiC as economical reinforcements to enhance the mechanical behavior of hybrid composite. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the use of BLA along with SiC as economical reinforcements to enhance the mechanical behavior of hybrid composite. The purpose of this research is the development of cost-effective aluminum hybrid metal matrix composites.

Design/methodology/approach

The present research work investigation evaluated the mechanical properties of Al-4.5%Cu alloy, Al-4.5Cu/10SiC, Al-4.5Cu/10SiC/2BLA and Al-4.5Cu/10SiC/4BLA composites by the Stir casting method. The fabricated composites were analyzed using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and hardness and tensile test.

Findings

The microstructure modification with the addition of reinforcement particles in the matrix alloy and clear interface in between matrix and particles are observed. The density of the composite increased with the addition of SiC and decreased with the addition of BLA in comparison with that of matrix alloy. The hardness and tensile strength of the single-reinforced composite and hybrid composites improved with the addition of reinforcement particles. The strengthening of composites was due to load-bearing capacity of reinforcement particles over the matrix alloy and increased dislocation density of composites materials. The tensile failure mechanism of the composites is reveled with SEM analysis.

Practical implications

The papers reports the development of cost-effective and light weight aluminum hybrid composites with remarkable enhancement in the mechanical and tribological properties with the addition of BLA as economical reinforcement along with SiC.

Originality/value

The density, hardness and tensile values of fabricated aluminium composites were presented in this paper for the use in the engineering applications where the weight and cost are consider as a primary factors.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article

Amit Sharma, Manish Garg and Satnam Singh

The purpose of this paper is to develop hybrid aluminum metal matrix composite by stir casting process, reinforced with graphite and hard boron carbide particles to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop hybrid aluminum metal matrix composite by stir casting process, reinforced with graphite and hard boron carbide particles to enhance the wear resistance. An attempt is made to optimize the wear (weight loss) and coefficient of friction (COF) by considering three factors, i.e. normal load, track diameter and sliding speed which were varied at three different levels.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of graphite and boron carbide on microhardness was studied by adding them in varying percentages. After determining the best combination of hybrid reinforcements, optimization of wear (weight loss) and COF was carried out at various levels of considered factors. Taguchi design of experiments was used using the software “Minitab 16.1”. ANOVA was used to analyze the effect of various parameters on wear and COF. To validate the results, mathematical modeling was carried out in terms of regression equations and results obtained by regression equations.

Findings

The results revealed that the lower weight percentage of graphite (3 per cent) and boron carbide (1 per cent) significantly improved microhardness of developed composites. Results of ANOVA revealed that normal load was the main contributing factor for wear and COF. The results obtained by regression equations and confirmatory tests were within the results obtained by ANOVA.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, very less work has been reported on optimization of wear and COF using hybrid reinforcement particles of graphite and boron carbide.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 67 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article

Jaroslav Mackerle

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metal forming, non‐metal forming, powder…

Abstract

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metal forming, non‐metal forming, powder metallurgy and composite material processing are briefly discussed. The range of applications of finite elements on these subjects is extremely wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore the aim of the paper is to give FE researchers/users only an encyclopaedic view of the different possibilities that exist today in the various fields mentioned above. An appendix included at the end of the paper presents a bibliography on finite element applications in material processing for 1994‐1996, where 1,370 references are listed. This bibliography is an updating of the paper written by Brannberg and Mackerle which has been published in Engineering Computations, Vol. 11 No. 5, 1994, pp. 413‐55.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article

Ömer Savaş

This study aims to investigate the production and abrasive wear rate of functionally graded TiB2/Al composites. TiB2 particles have been spontaneously formed in liquid…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the production and abrasive wear rate of functionally graded TiB2/Al composites. TiB2 particles have been spontaneously formed in liquid matrix using in situ technique. The properties of composites such as hardness, abrasive wear rate and microstructure have been examined.

Design/methodology/approach

In situ TiB2 reinforcement phase was synthesized by using a liquid Al–Ti–B system. A semi-solid composite (Al(l)-TiB2(s)) prepared at 900°C was solidified under a centrifugal force to both grade functionally and give the final shape to materials. Abrasive wear test of materials was conducted using the pin-on-disk method at room temperature. The wear tests were carried out with two different loads of 1 Newton (N) and 2 N, a sliding velocity of 3.5 m s−1 and a sliding distance of 75 m.

Findings

This research provided the following findings; TiB2 particles can be successfully synthesized with in situ reaction technique in molten aluminum. It was determined that abrasive wear rate increases with increasing load and decreases with increasing TiB2 reinforcement content within matrix.

Originality/value

In previous studies, there have been many trials on the in situ production of TiB2-reinforced aluminum matrix composites. However, there are few studies on production of in situ TiB2-reinforced aluminum matrix functionally graded materials. At the same time, there is no study that the properties of composite, such as hardness and abrasive wear rate, are examined together according to centrifugal force.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/ILT-12-2019-0538/

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article

Rajesh Siriyala, A. Gopala Krishna, P. Rama Murthy Raju and M. Duraiselvam

Since, wear is the one of the most commonly encountered industrial problems leading to frequent replacement of components there is a need to develop metal matrix composites

Abstract

Purpose

Since, wear is the one of the most commonly encountered industrial problems leading to frequent replacement of components there is a need to develop metal matrix composites (MMCs) for achieving better wear properties. The purpose of this paper is to fabricate aluminum MMCs to improve the dry sliding wear characteristics. An effective multi-response optimization approach called the principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the sets of optimal parameters in dry sliding wear process.

Design/methodology/approach

The present work investigates the dry sliding wear behavior of graphite reinforced aluminum composites produced by the molten metal mixing method by means of a pin-on-disc type wear set up. Dry sliding wear tests were carried on graphite reinforced MMCs and its matrix alloy sliding against a steel counter face. Different contact stress, reinforcement percentage, sliding distance and sliding velocity were selected as the control variables and the response selected was wear volume loss (WVL) and coefficient of friction (COF) to evaluate the dry sliding performance. An L25 orthogonal array was employed for the experimental design. Optimization of dry sliding performance of the graphite reinforced MMCs was performed using PCA.

Findings

Based on the PCA, the optimum level parameters for overall principal component (PC) of WVL and COF have been identified. Moreover, analysis of variance was performed to know the impact of individual factors on overall PC of WVL and COF. The results indicated that the reinforcement percentage was found to be most effective factor among the other control parameters on dry sliding wear followed by sliding distance, sliding velocity and contact stress. Finally the wear surface morphology of the composites has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy.

Practical implications

Various manufacturing techniques are available for processing of MMCs. Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. In particular, some techniques are significantly expensive compared to others. Generally the manufacturer prefers the low cost technique. Therefore stir casting technique which was used in this paper for manufacturing of Aluminum MMCs is the best alternative for processing of MMCs in the present commercial sectors. Since the most important criteria of a dry sliding wear behavior is to provide lower WVL and COF, this study has intended to prove the application of PCA technique for solving multi objective optimization problem in wear applications like piston rings, piston rods, cylinder heads and brake rotors, etc.

Originality/value

Application of multi-response optimization technique for evaluation of tribological characteristics for Aluminum MMCs made up of graphite particulates is a first-of-its-kind approach in literature. Hence PCA method can be successfully used for multi-response optimization of dry sliding wear process.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article

Abdul Maleque and Rezaul Karim

The purpose of this paper is to study the wear behavior of as‐cast (AC) and heat treated (HT) triple particle size (TPS) silicon carbide (SiC) reinforced aluminum

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the wear behavior of as‐cast (AC) and heat treated (HT) triple particle size (TPS) silicon carbide (SiC) reinforced aluminum alloy‐based metal matrix composites (SiCp/Al‐MMC).

Design/methodology/approach

Al‐MMCs were prepared using 20 vol.% SiC reinforcement into aluminum metal matrix and developed using a stir casting process. Stir casting is a primary process of composite production whereby the reinforcement ingredient material is incorporated into the molten metal by stirring. The TPS composite consist of SiC of three different sizes viz., coarse, intermediate, and fine. The solution heat treatment was done on AC composite at 540°C for 4 h followed by precipitation treatment. The wear test was carried out using a pin‐on‐disc type tribo‐test machine under dry sliding condition. A mathematical analysis was also done for power factor values based on wear and friction results. The wear morphology of the damaged surface was also studied using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) in this investigation.

Findings

The test results showed that HT composite exhibited better wear resistance properties compared to AC composite. It is anticipated that heat treatment could be an effective method of optimizing the wear resistance properties of the developed Al‐MMC material.

Practical implications

This paper provides a way to enhance the wear behavior of automotive tribo‐components such as brake rotor (disc and drum), brake pad, piston cylinder, etc.

Originality/value

This paper compares the wear behavior of AC and HT TPS reinforced Al‐MMC material under dry sliding condition.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 61 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article

Yafei Deng, Xiaotao Pan, Guoxun Zeng, Jie Liu, Sinong Xiao and Zhenquan Zhou

This paper aims to improve the tribological properties of aluminum alloys and reduce their wear rate.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to improve the tribological properties of aluminum alloys and reduce their wear rate.

Design/methodology/approach

Carbon is placed in the model at room temperature, pour 680°C of molten aluminum into the pressure chamber, and then pressed it into the mold containing carbon felt through a die casting machine, and waited for it to cool, which used an injection pressure of 52.8 MPa and held the same pressure for 15 s.

Findings

The result indicated that the mechanical properties of matrix and composite are similar, and the compressive strength of the composite is only 95% of the matrix alloy. However, the composite showed a low friction coefficient, the friction coefficient of Gr/Al composite is only 0.15, which just is two-third than that of the matrix alloy. Similarly, the wear rate of the composite is less than 4% of the matrix. In addition, the composite can avoid severe wear before 200°C, but the matrix alloy only 100°C.

Originality/value

This material has excellent friction properties and is able to maintain this excellent performance at high temperatures.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/ILT-10-2019-0454/

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article

Jaroslav Mackerle

This paper gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied to the analysis of ceramics and glass materials. The bibliography at the end of the…

Abstract

This paper gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied to the analysis of ceramics and glass materials. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations on the subject that were published between 1977‐1998. The following topics are included: ceramics – material and mechanical properties in general, ceramic coatings and joining problems, ceramic composites, ferrites, piezoceramics, ceramic tools and machining, material processing simulations, fracture mechanics and damage, applications of ceramic/composites in engineering; glass – material and mechanical properties in general, glass fiber composites, material processing simulations, fracture mechanics and damage, and applications of glasses in engineering.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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