Māori and Pasifika Higher Education Horizons: Volume 15

Subject:

Table of contents

(25 chapters)
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Abstract

Negotiating the ‘middle-ground’ (Lear, 2006) between New Zealand universities and Maori whare wananga is the issue discussed in this chapter. It is suggested that the Maori institution of the marae, used as a ‘mediating structure’ (Berger, 1979) is ideally placed as the negotiating space to enhance the learning and scholarship of all students who seek a sense of belonging as well as the opportunity to increase their potential as global citizens. It is argued that choosing to make a contribution to the betterment of all New Zealanders is the prior intellectual and cultural engagement.

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Abstract

Wānanga are Indigenous educational institutions that encompass a diverse approach to education. Te Whare Wānanga o Awanuiārangi, an ‘Indigenous University’, is an environment where innovative thinking and culturally based teaching practice enhances student experiences in an Indigenous Māori environment. It is in this space that Māori ideology and epistemology are practiced and viewed as normal. This diverse environment accepts without qualification that education and knowledge will be provided to the highest level through an Indigenous Māori lens. Culturally responsive environments are conducive to learning experiences for Indigenous Māori students. Pedagogy that is underpinned by cultural values and philosophy enhances the reciprocal learning experiences that are shared between lecturer and student. A positive learning environment promotes a distributive action, where the student experience is further shared with whānau (family), hapū (sub-tribe), Iwi (tribe) and communities in which they interact and engage.

Abstract

This chapter examines mātauranga Māori (Māori ways of knowing) and Iwi (tribes and sub-tribes) mātauranga (knowledge) described as mātauranga-a-iwi (tribal knowledge). It presents an argument that mātauranga Māori and mātauranga-a-iwi must be linked to a particular context, drawing out the ideas that space and place are important. This theoretical chapter through Kaupapa Māori (a Māori way) identifies a series of key concepts that set the parameters for a discussion of the relationships between mātauranga-a-iwi, mātauranga Māori and Kaupapa Māori theory. I argue that mātauranga Māori, Kaupapa Māori theory and mātauranga-a-iwi are distinct entities but inseparable. This chapter charts the relationships among these three entities in a diagrammatic form, in what I have termed the Ranga Framework. The Ranga Framework proposes the working relationship between these elements that links space and place to people to produce contextual knowledge. By making the appropriate linkages to produce contextual knowledge Māori are able to locate themselves cognitively into the learning environment. I argue this is an important element that will help lift the educational success of Māori. It is important to ensure that contextual connections are a critical component in the delivery of knowledge, without which/otherwise Māori learners are in danger of reproaching mutant forms of language and knowledge, and thereby becoming disconnected from a more-authentic Iwi base. This chapter proposes an indigenous cognitive development framework to map engagement with new concepts and the stages required to reach mastery.

Abstract

Kaupapa Māori research brings to the centre and normalises Māori academic success in higher education in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Identity as Māori, through Iwi (tribal) affiliations and as tangata whenua (people of the land), are foundational values from a Māori world view. Strong Māori identity is significantly a consistent element in the stories of Māori academic successes. It is part of the ‘cultural capital’ that tauira Māori (students and graduates) take with them into educational institutions, where little active attention is given to it. At issue on a broader level is the resounding ‘silence of the archives’, the lack of information about Māori succeeding in higher education, particularly from a Māori world view. The dominant discourse in Aotearoa/New Zealand positions us into the ‘other’ and as ‘deficit’. In a reversal of this my doctoral research asked how and why do Māori succeed in higher education. Uniquely Māori elements of whenua (land), whānau (family) and connection with marae (meeting ground and complex) are part of the how and the why of Māori academic achievement. This chapter highlights how some Māori began their journeys that result in academic successes and IT qualifications. Their haphazard access to information about IT implicates the poorly developed pathways of entry into IT studies at that time and may explain some of the low uptake of IT qualifications and IT field employment by Māori and other New Zealanders.

Abstract

This chapter describes and examines how Iwi (tribe)-led projects in Higher Education settings might advance Iwi aspirations and lead to authentic collaboration. Two recent developments in higher education, Mau ki te Ako – Culturally responsive professional learning and development for teachers and He Toki ki te Rika – a Māori trade training initiative, are discussed. Both initiatives are Iwi-led partnerships facilitated by Te Tapuae o Rehua between partner tertiary institutions. These projects or sites in which Iwi engage with tertiary institutions can be seen to reflect society at large as sites of struggle where power is negotiated, aspirations are articulated and values inherent in the way in which projects are progressed.

Abstract

Māori are the indigenous population of New Zealand, although even the name ‘Māori’ is not ever used by them to describe all the inhabitants of those shores at the time of colonisation. Rather, reference is made to the iwi (tribe), hapū (sub-tribe or clan) and whānau (family), one is inherently part of, based firmly on whakapapa (genealogy). Colonisation of New Zealand began in the late 1700s and proceeded in a similar manner to other colonised places around the world, resulting in the sublimation of indigenous peoples and their culture. Māori had societal structures, culture and tikanga (customs) determined by whakapapa. Māori had and continue to have their own way of looking at the world. The legitimation of a Māori world view within a large organisation relies on a vision, a strategy and an overwhelming enthusiasm among key influencers to drive it. Numerous Māori leaders and scholars through the ages have held the same vision for Māori, that is, to be an equal partner in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The Office of Māori Development at the University of Otago supports this vision – to embed aspects of Te Ao Māori within the fabric of the institution. The University’s Māori Strategic Framework (MSF) grew out of two significant documents: a Treaty of Waitangi Audit conducted by Dr Ranginui Walker (University of Otago, 1998) and a Treaty of Waitangi Stocktake undertaken by Janine Kapa (University of Otago, 2005). The Stocktake findings were subsequently tested with a number of key stakeholders from within the University, as well as local mana whenua 1 and other interest groups. This consultation formed the foundation of the University’s MSF. This chapter begins by outlining the historical context in which the relationship between the University and Māori progressed, leading ultimately to its partnership with Ngāi Tahu. 2 A contemporary response to realising indigenous imperatives is then examined, by looking at the formation of the MSF, the importance of the consultative process undertaken with key stakeholders, and further, the role it has played in transforming the University of Otago.

Abstract

Within the tertiary Institution where I am employed there is a real and concerted effort to engage meaningfully as a Treaty 1 partner with the local Iwi (tribe) 2 through a formal arrangement. 3 However the institution often inadvertently finds itself crossing the ‘cultural boundary’ of what or how Indigenous and local Iwi knowledge systems and practices fit within its tertiary systems. This chapter explores some of the challenges that have arisen between Iwi and the Institution. In particular it examines the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) the Institute has with the four Arai-Te-Uru Rūnaka (tribal councils) that saw the creation of a Kaitohutohu 4 position at Senior Management level. From this came the establishment of a Kōmiti Kawanataka (Treaty of Waitangi Committee) and the writing of the Māori Strategic Framework (MSF). All staff are required under the MoU to action the MSF within their teaching and learning as well as in their service provision. The Institute has established internal training to assist staff with how they can implement the MSF. Training is offered at zero cost and staff have a two-year window of opportunity to enrol in and complete it.

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Abstract

Lagona (lah-ngor-nah) is firstly a Samoan word that literally means a gut feeling or an unexplained conviction that something is so. In this chapter Lagona describes an indigenous and time-validated way of knowing and learning. Where there is intrinsic knowledge about the cultural principles, mores and processes for making teaching and learning accessible, Lagona illuminates these learning structures by intuitively validating the unseen and subtle cultural spaces that students are armed with when they reach the classroom. Lagona guides pastoral care and supports the retention and success of Pasifika students in higher education.

Abstract

Indigenous health workforce development has been identified as a key strategy to improve Indigenous health and reduce ethnic inequities in health outcomes. Likewise, development of a culturally safe and culturally competent non-Indigenous health workforce must also occur if the elimination of health inequities is to be fully realised. Tertiary education providers responsible for training health professionals must face the challenge of engaging the Indigenous learner within health sciences, exposing the ‘hidden curriculum’ that undermines professional Indigenous health learning and ensuring tertiary success for Indigenous students within their academy. This chapter summarises recent developments, research and interventions within the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences at the University of Auckland that aims to address these challenges by re-presenting Indigenous student recruitment, selection and support, re-presenting bridging/foundation education and representing Māori health teaching and learning within the curriculum.

Abstract

Dreams and aspirations are at the core of what higher education is about. Students and scholars alike, the world over, are engaged in the realisation of dreams that bring forth new opportunities, new ways of seeing and being and of changing the world. Many Māori students dream of making a difference, and see the pursuit of higher education as a way to bring their dreams into reality. Often their dreams reflect family and community aspirations bringing with it a significant burden of responsibility and obligation. And for Māori academics and researchers like me, my dreams are not too different to those of my own students except that where students pursue a pathway towards becoming relevant, academics are challenged to remain so. In this chapter, I will share some of my/our hopes and experiences and how Māori went about dreaming ourselves into the staff make-up, curriculum and research activities in the School of Psychology at the University of Waikato.

Abstract

Māori (Indigenous New Zealanders) and Pacific students tend not to attain the same levels of educational success as New Zealanders of European descent. Addressing this problem is a particular challenge at tertiary level in science, engineering, and architecture and design (SEAD). Te Rōpū Āwhina (Āwhina), an initiative at Victoria University of Wellington (VUW), aims to produce Māori and Pacific professionals who contribute to Māori and Pacific development and leadership. The objective of this analysis was to summarise quantitative results from the first 11 years of Āwhina and to show they are consistent with an Āwhina ‘effect’; that is, a positive influence on (combined) Māori and Pacific success in the SEAD disciplines. Individual-level records held in the VUW student database were used to generate smoothed trends in SEAD and non-SEAD graduate and postgraduate degree completions since 1991. Substantial improvements in SEAD Māori and Pacific completions occurred between 1999 and 2010, including a 50%- increase in Māori and Pacific postgraduate completions relative to all SEAD postgraduate completions. In the same period, non-SEAD Māori and Pacific postgraduate completions increased at a similar rate to all non-SEAD postgraduate completions. Results were consistent with a strong Āwhina effect, which has important implications for the nature of tertiary institutions, their cultural and social disconnection with Indigenous and minority students, and their social obligations and responsiveness. This analysis did not account for students who did not complete a qualification or include key confounders such as entry qualifications and gender. Definitive confirmation of an Āwhina effect is the subject of ongoing research.

Abstract

This chapter chronicles an international inter-institutional Māori-led small-scale tertiary intervention that has potential for larger scale future implementation. The educational intervention, Optimising Māori Academic Achievement (OMAA), is based in Te Puna Wānanga (The School of Māori Education) in the Faculty of Education at the University of Auckland (UoA). It aims to increase the completion rates of Māori students enrolled in the Bachelor of Teaching Māori-Medium Specialisation (Huarahi Māori) at the UoA and the Bachelor of Nursing at Waiariki Institute of Technology, Bay of Plenty. The OMAA initiative is based on the adaptation and implementation of a tertiary intervention that has a research-based track record in North America and has also been successfully adapted for use in Australia. Authors of this chapter are Māori and Indigenous women working as primary investigators, programme directors and leaders facilitating the international inter-institutional intervention among the UoA, Waiariki Institute of Technology (Waiariki) and Victoria University in Melbourne, Australia. Adaptation of the North American tertiary intervention by Māori for Māori is at the heart of the initiative. Māori and Indigenous projects such as OMAA can attract potential postgraduate students from within New Zealand as well as from other countries where there are Indigenous communities of people. Implementation details, implications, lessons learned and future directions will be described in this chapter.

Abstract

Mentoring programmes for students have been made ‘popular’ with the increase in New Zealand universities over the past 10 years. These programmes have targeted the groups of ‘low achieving’ students, especially those of Pacific ethnicity, who have been identified as students who need academic support. For the universities, the main priority has been to increase the academic achievement levels of the students. Mentoring has value and it is beneficial for all of those involved. However, there needs to be examination and analysis of mentoring programmes, especially with regard to the impacts. As a practitioner and theorist of mentoring, I present a personal exploration of the interpersonal relationships formed in mentoring between myself and my students so that a clearer depiction of mentoring relationships may occur for those have a keen interest with Pacific students. The nature of mentoring in a university context is challenging but with the philosophical approach of appreciative mentorship, the challenges quickly fade into the background. Mentoring as a process of relationship development is critical for the successful academic futures of Pacific students in tertiary education.

Abstract

Māori and Pacific school leavers, who tend to be clustered in low-decile schools, are less likely than any other ethnic groups in New Zealand to begin degree-level studies, to succeed in their first year, and continue with their studies. This chapter will draw on the research findings from a prospective, longitudinal, qualitative study of student transition from secondary school to university (Madjar, McKinley, Deynzer, & van der Merwe, 2010). The study was an in-depth, longitudinal one with young people in transition, recruited in their last term of high school and followed to the end of their first semester. A sub-sample was followed until the end of their second year of university study. The chapter will discuss the critical importance of engagement, both academic and social, for student success in university environment. We will also explore the significance of connections with the students’ whānau (extended family) and community, and the peer connections and their impact on students’ experience of transition.

Abstract

Since 2002 there has been strategic focus on inclusive tertiary provision as a means of addressing the issues of student groups who have historically not fared well in higher education. Equity groups include Māori, Pasifika and students with disabilities. This chapter charts the terrain of inclusive higher education in Aotearoa through the critical reflections of Kahurangi, a Māori student with a vision impairment. Despite a strategic focus on inclusive provision and Kahurangi’s success his experiences suggest that there is some way to go. The authors argue that given the limited ways in which inclusion and its underpinning theory of disability are theorised inclusive higher educational settings are unlikely to be realised.

Abstract

Does participation in tertiary education in Aotearoa New Zealand weaken or strengthen Samoan ethnic identity? Narratives of Pacific women graduates interviewed for a doctoral study of ethnic identity construction provide illustrations of how a process of ethnic identity formation is built up through interactions between groups and individuals within institutions where all members of society participate and come into contact with each other. Ethnic identity construction is influenced by both circumstantial situational factors and what people themselves bring into those circumstances (Cornell & Hartmann, 1998). The cultural backgrounds of this group of tertiary students are socially constructed within their families and churches. It is these backgrounds they bring with them into tertiary education contexts. The strengthening of ethnic identity, as experienced by this group of Samoan women graduate students, was unique, complex and at times contradictory.

Abstract

The tradition in academic institutions seems to favour individual effort and achievement. In counterpoint, a group of four Māori women from Aotearoa New Zealand – Nan Wehipeihana, Kataraina Pipi, Vivienne Kennedy and Kirimatao Paipa – share their experiences of journeying together as a kaupapa whānau, 1 enhanced by their whakapapa 2 links to collectively navigate a higher education pathway. They asserted their ways of working and being supportive to each other through a postgraduate diploma in evaluation and research. Their collaborative way of working challenged the academic system where learning is focused on individual effort and achievement. Pushing the boundaries to ensure the benefits of a culture of inclusiveness, collaboration and collectivity in an academic sphere of learning requires a mixture of willingness and cooperation between students and the institution. This chapter describes how this group of four mature Māori students overcame challenges in asserting a cultural stance that was a key enabler to them in successfully attaining their higher educational learning goals.

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Index

Pages 323-331
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DOI
10.1108/S1479-3644201415
Publication date
2014-04-04
Book series
Diversity in Higher Education
Editors
Series copyright holder
Emerald Publishing Limited
ISBN
978-1-78350-703-0
eISBN
978-1-78350-704-7
Book series ISSN
1479-3644