Table of contents(18 chapters)
Empirical evidence indicates that effective management of resources to implement strategy in a balanced scorecard (BSC) system is essential. We present a mathematical model for allocating limited resources in the BSC strategy implementation process.
The proposed facilitated negotiation model provides a systematic approach to prioritizing strategic initiatives in the design and implementation of a BSC.
Our joint decision model prioritizes strategic initiatives and concurrently calculates the optimal (or approximately optimal) set of BSC targets and weights, given multiyear resource restrictions.
The model assumes full, open, and truthful exchange of information between the parties; an assumption that may exclude many organizations.
We address an important gap in the BSC literature on how organizations can effectively link strategy to the potential constraint of resource budgets.
Quantitative models are being used in practice for allocating resources, but we are not aware of their use by organizations for allocating resources in a BSC application.
This paper chronicles the evolution of the academic debate regarding diversity in management accounting research and discusses its impact on the current state of management accounting research.
We review the stream of literature over the last 40-plus years that discusses diversity in management accounting.
Anthony’s 1972 paper in Sloan Management Review makes a call to academics to adjust the trajectory of management accounting research. Our review of the literature reveals that early responses in the 1980s and 1990s to Anthony’s call primarily came from U.S. academics who suggest a broader theoretical approach and more work in the field. After 2000, non-U.S. authors and non-U.S. journals take up the call for diversity and shift the discussion to the more fundamental topic of validating and accepting various research paradigms. The U.S. academic environment fosters a narrow yet important view of management account research. To balance the U.S. view, non-U.S. academics have the liberty of using diverse theories, paradigms, and methods.
The results of the study indicate that the challenge to moving management accounting research forward is for diverse research approaches to be valued and published in top accounting journals that tend to be U.S. based.
This study extends the theoretical analyses of Duration-Based Costing (DBC), an alternative cost measurement system to Activity-Based Costing (ABC). DBC is simpler than ABC and uses the production cycle time to assign costs. This simplicity should allow DBC to be a better costing method for multiproduct firms that exhibit nonconstant returns to scale.
Data simulations for 1,000 cases and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) are used to analyze the production functions inside DBC and ABC models to determine their relative technical efficiency.
The results show that, for a given set of simulations, DBC shows more nonconstant returns to scale than does ABC. This corroborates prior research and suggests that a more complex costing system, such as ABC, may not always match the production technology of a multiproduct firm. Thus, DBC may have a higher level of accuracy than does ABC for firms that exhibit nonconstant returns to scale.
Since DBC has only recently been theoretically developed, this study is the first to analyze the relative technical efficiency of DBC compared to ABC.
This study should bring some further awareness of the implications of alternative costing methods. The limitation of DBC is that it does not capture other factors not driven by the production cycle time that could be necessary for management decision making. However, DBC is better for multiproduct firms than a more complicated costing system and does help decision makers determine whether the production process is operating efficiently. It is imperative that firms choose which costing methods fit the firm’s needs and economic structure.
Research on how performance measurement systems affect employees’ perceptions of workplace fairness is important. As organizations often rely on their performance measurement systems to communicate information to their employees, it is useful to ascertain if and how the developments of performance measurement systems that are far more comprehensive than traditional financial systems affect employees’ perceptions of informational fairness through the information communicated to employees. Informational fairness refers to employees’ perceptions of workplace fairness that is based on the amount and the truthfulness of information that organizations provide to their employees. Based on a sample of managers from manufacturing organizations, the Partial Least Square results indicate that comprehensive performance measurement systems (comprehensive PMS) have a significant direct effect on job-relevant information. They also indicate that comprehensive PMS have an indirect effect on informational fairness via job-relevant information. In contrast, systems that are based on financial measures have no significant effects on job-relevant information and informational fairness. These results demonstrate how comprehensive PMS (through the communication of a greater amount of job-relevant information) can be used to engender employees’ perceptions of high workplace fairness.
The purpose of this study is to review the capital budgeting literature over the past decade.
Specifically, over the years 2004–2013, we review works appearing in the major academic journals in accounting, finance, and management. Further, we review the specialized academic journals in management accounting. We examine the frequency of articles by journal and year published, the type of research method applied, and the topic area studied. We then review the research findings by topic area.
We find 110 articles appearing in the selected journals. While the articles increase in frequency, the research methods applied are predominantly analytical and archival in nature with relatively few experiments, case studies, or surveys. Some progress is observed for capital budgeting techniques and new methods for structuring uncertainty. The studies find that the size of capital budgets is about right for companies with high financial reporting quality, for liquid companies, during periods of normal cash flow, when the budget is financed by equity, for companies when they first go public or first go private. Tax rates and financial reporting methods for depreciation and tax expenses distort capital budgets. Organization structure and performance measurement can distort capital budgeting. Individual differences, especially optimism and honesty, can influence capital budgeting decisions.
Limitations and Implications
This review is limited to the major journals in accounting, finance, and management; and the specialized journals in management accounting. There is much research to be done on capital budgeting, especially case studies of actual practice and experiments related to individual and group decision processes.
While cost allocation decisions attract considerable attention in the management accounting literature, many studies are contradicting and inconclusive. They often seek to develop product or service weights in order to make operating decisions with the sole objective of maximizing the firm’s profitability. But before developing these weights, the studies must first rank these products – which is a complex endeavor that is often driven by many hierarchical financial and nonfinancial goals and objectives. Ranking is also difficult due to using such complex concepts as time, uncertainty, cost, and interdependencies between accounting systems and manufacturing systems and among the products of the product mix. These concepts are inherently fuzzy and coextensively applied often with a confluence of variables operating simultaneously.
This paper applies an advanced mathematical model to account for a hospital cost allocation decisions in treating spinal cord injuries (SCI). The model combines the powers of fuzzy set theory (Zadeh, 1965) and the analytic hierarchy process (Saaty, 1978). The precise ratings required in the conventional analytic hierarchy process but practically hard to obtain are replaced by naturally semantic variables by using the fuzzy set concept. de Korvin and Kleyle’s (1999) fuzzy-analytic-hierarchical process (FAHP) then develop these ambiguous variables. FAHP can help to optimize decisions involving ambiguous variables and the web of prioritized strategies and goals of cost leadership, product differentiation, financial objectives of earnings, cash flows, and market share and nonfinancial goals such as tradition and owners’ convictions and philosophies.
We use data from seven Michigan SCI facilities in applying the FAHP model to rank and otherwise develop more optimal strategies and goals and compare our results to the decisions of hospital management.
This paper examines the profitability and performance measurement of U.S. regional banks during the period 1994–2011, using the GMM estimator technique. Our study extends prior research by including several factors not previously considered using U.S. data.
We use bank-specific, industry-specific, and macroeconomic determinants of profitability contemporaneous with our performance indicators. We follow the accounting fundamental analysis path in explaining the bank performance.
Among the performance measures, the efficiency ratio and provisions for credit losses are negatively and equity scaled by assets is positively related to profitability. However, these relationships either reverse (efficiency ratio and provisions for credit losses) or become insignificant (equity scaled by assets) when the target becomes change in profitability. The level of nonperforming assets is negatively related to profitability across all measures of profitability used. Macroeconomic variables are largely unrelated to profitability during the year they are measured. However, they have a significant relationship with earnings change measures, suggesting they have a lagged effect on profitability. The slope of the yield curve is especially strong in this regard.
We use our determinants to model changes in bank profitability one year ahead, in addition to including several factors not previously considered, using the predictive focus of the fundamental analysis research.
The goal of this paper is to develop a model which may be used to demonstrate costs and benefits of risk management investments in the context of value-based management.
This paper answers the question of how to quantify changes in company value caused by risk management measures on a theoretical basis. First, a review of empirical studies allowing assertions about the cost and utility of risk management investments is presented. The results of these studies point to a nonlinear shape of the curve and form a basis for the development of a seemingly plausible cost/utility correlation.
In this paper, a model will be developed which can be used to demonstrate costs and benefits of risk management investments in the context of value-based management. It is assumed that at first, risk management expenditures without measurable monetary utility will have to be made. Furthermore, it is assumed to increase more than proportionally, then less than proportionally, until further investments in risk management activities yield only minimal increases in utility and cannot improve company value any further.
By inserting the yet-to-be-determined actual cost/benefit relationship for a company or industry sector into the EVA equation, it is possible to display the effects of risk management measures on the company value. This procedure is principally combinable with the analysis of other value-based control parameters, that is, the Discounted Cash Flow concept or the Cash Value Added methodology.
Risk management is increasingly gaining scientific and public interest, especially since the global financial crisis. Scientists and practical users espouse the benefits of risk management systems in this context. However, the extent to which investments in risk management systems can improve the value of a company remains still unclear.
We could determine that at first risk management expenditures will not result in a monetarily measurable benefit. The remaining slope of the curve is derived as increasing more than proportionally at first, then less than proportionally, until further investments into risk management activities yield almost no additional increase in benefits. In this paper, three different functions are offered to describe the shape of the curve identified. They differ in regard to their free parameters and hence in their flexibility of application. The higher flexibility of functions #2 and #3 is balanced by the disadvantage of increasing formal complexity, possibly leading to an increased effort for implementation and application.
To harness the relationships developed in this paper for practical use, further research should target the identification and empirical verification of dependencies between the parameters and principal company index values.
To provide an overview of research published in the management accounting literature on methods for cost management in new product development, such as a target costing, life cycle costing, component commonality, and modular design.
The structured literature search covered papers about 15 different cost management methods published in 40 journals in the period 1990–2013.
The search yielded a sample of 113 different papers. Many contained information about more than one method, and this yielded 149 references to specific methods. The number of references varied strongly per cost management method and per journal. Target costing has received by far the most attention in the publications in our sample; modular design, component commonality, and life cycle costing were ranked second and joint third. Most references were published in Management Science; Management Accounting Research; and Accounting, Organizations and Society. The results were strongly influenced by Management Science and Decision Science, because cost management methods with an engineering background were published above average in these two journals (design for manufacturing, component commonality, modular design, and product platforms) while other topics were published below average in these two journals.
The scope of this review is accounting research. Future work could review the research on cost management methods in new product development published outside accounting.
The paper centers on methods for cost management, which complements reviews that focused on theoretical constructs of management accounting information and its use.
- Publication date
- Book series
- Advances in Management Accounting
- Series copyright holder
- Emerald Publishing Limited
- Book series ISSN