In both Norway and Sweden the law governing food hygiene is similar to that in Britain. Powers are vested in local authorities by one general Act couched in wide terms, and by more detailed regulations or byelaws drawn up as required. The degree of severity with which local authorities interpret the regulations varies, and in both countries the functions of central government in relation to food hygiene are mainly advisory. Outbreaks of food poisoning are rare. The various salmonella infections and the cattle diseases liable to infect food are well known, and the supervision in slaughterhouses and on farms is such that the organisms, if present, are identified. Salmonella out‐breaks due to infected imported dried eggs have also been traced. Yet such knowledge and careful supervision is common to other countries where notified outbreaks of food poisoning are comparatively numerous. Whether the relative absence of notified outbreaks in Norway and Sweden is entirely due to a higher standard of food hygiene, or to the prevailing custom of preparing food immediately before or even during a meal, is not clear. It is noticeable that in restaurants some time elapses between ordering a meal and receiving it, and that the food is always freshly prepared. In neither country are food handlers examined medically, except those in the milk trade, who are said to be examined every year. Some doubt exists about the value of this examination and the extent to which it is enforced, though in Stockholm enforcement would not be difficult as over 90 per cent of the milk supplied to that city is handled by one combine, controlled by the farmers' co‐operatives. In both countries all milk supplied in towns must be pasteurised, though bovine tuberculosis has been almost eliminated. Owing to a shortage of glass, milk is still sold “ loose ”, but it is hoped to introduce compulsory bottling in the near future. As the result of requests for more detailed instructions from Medical Officers of Health of small towns and country districts new regulations governing the sale of food have recently been drawn up. Restaurants, hotels and food shops must be licensed by local authorities; they are not licensed until they have been inspected and approved. The local authority can revoke a licence, but the proprietor of the establishment concerned has the right of appeal to the courts.
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