Index

Addressing Diversity in Literacy Instruction

ISBN: 978-1-78714-049-3, eISBN: 978-1-78714-048-6

ISSN: 2048-0458

Publication date: 3 November 2017

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2017), "Index", Ortlieb, E. and Cheek, E.H. (Ed.) Addressing Diversity in Literacy Instruction (Literacy Research, Practice and Evaluation, Vol. 8), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 273-285. https://doi.org/10.1108/S2048-045820170000008015

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2017 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

academic language
, 79–80, 81

academic vocabulary journal
, 82–83

ACCESS.
, See Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State to State for English Language Learners (ACCESS)

access to complex texts
, 10–13, See also Complex text, access to text; Opportunities to learn (OTL); Reading

accurate literacy learning information
, 6

adolescent classrooms, ELL educators and
, 57, 60–70

bias and validity
, 65

findings
, 65–70

Latina/o teenagers
, 66–68

participant observation
, 61–63

research design
, 60–63

state’s lack of awareness
, 69

status of education
, 69–70

teaching profession
, 69–70

agentive emergent bilinguals
, 185–187

Alarcon, Francisco
, 176

alien poem
, 182, 185

“All about Purple and Red”
, 181

alphabetic principle
, 78

alternative grammars, in written assignments
, 49

Amanti, C.
, 137

Americans with Disabilities Act
, 231, 232

Anti-bias Framework (Teaching Tolerance website)
, 150

Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State to State for English Language Learners (ACCESS)
, 177

assistive technology
, 242–243

audio-assisted reading
, 245–246

authentic audience
, 175–176

autism, UDL for
, 239–241

autonomous reading
, 13

Averbeck, Jim
, 218

Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills (BICS)
, 79–80

Bauer, E.
, 175

Because They Marched: The People’s Campaign for Voting Rights that Changed America (Freedman)
, 221–222

Beck, I. L.
, 81

Benchmark Assessment System (BAS)
, 24, 24t–25t

Bickmore, K.
, 148–149

BICS.
, See Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills (BICS)

bilinguals.
, See Emergent bilinguals, multimodal literacy and; Reading Recovery (RR)

Billings, L.
, 161

Blachman, B. A.
, 79

Blackburn, M. V.
, 139, 147–148

Black Community Crusade for Children
, 253

The Book Thief (Wiesel)
, 143

Boom Beach
, 186

Boon, H. J.
, 6

Branded by the Pink Triangle,
, 143

Branded by the Pink Triangle (Setterington)
, 143

Brinson, S.
, 210

Cahill, B. J.
, 149

CALP.
, See Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)

Canagarajah, S.
, 38, 51

capacity methods, for vocabulary instruction
, 81

CAST.
, See Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST)

Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST)
, 231, 232

Center for Successful Fathering
, 99

Certo, J.
, 160

Chicago (Sandburg)
, 48

Children’s Defense Fund (CDF)
, 252–255, See also Freedom Schools

children’s literature, rubric, for
, 207–225

categories
, 219–222

continuum
, 214–219

development
, 212–214

discussion
, 222–224

limitations and possibilities
, 224–225

methods
, 211–212

overview
, 208–209

problem background
, 209–210

choral reading
, 245

Civil Rights Movement
, 252, 253

Clark, C. T.
, 139

classroom activities, vocabulary instruction
, 81–83

close reading
, 11–12

code-meshing, in oral language
, 48–49

Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
, 79–80

collaboration

defined
, 159

synergistic
, 160–161

collaborative learning
, 159

Colomer, S.
, 175

complex text, access to text
, 10–13

close reading
, 11–12

learning intentions
, 10

modeling
, 11

peer-led reading tasks
, 12

scaffolding reading
, 12

think-aloud techniques
, 11

comprehension strategies, reading
, 11, See also Reading

Confessions of a Former Bully (Ludwig)
, 254

content purpose
, 10

Cooperative Children’s Book Center
, 209

cooperative learning
, 238

cosmopolitanism
, 195–196

creativity
, 188–189

Creswell, J. W.
, 65

critical literacy
, 118–119

instruction
, 202

Cross Cultural Adaptability Inventory
, 195

Cultural and Political Vignette (CPV)
, 120–122

homeless students
, 120–122, 125–127

twelfth grade unit of
, 125–127

understanding of student economic diversity
, 128–129

cultural experiences, in Reading Recovery (RR)
, 17–35, See also Reading Recovery (RR)

family involvement
, 31–33, 34–35

texts and
, 29–31

curriculum
, 231

content
, 19

guaranteed and viable
, 5–6

Damned Strong Love: The True Story of Willi G. and Stefan K. (Van Dijk)
, 143

Daniels, Harvey
, 162

Demény, P.
, 160

Derrida, Jacques
, 56

Developmental Research Sequence Method (DRS)
, 61–62

Dia de Los Muertos
, 110

The Diary of a Young Girl (Frank)
, 143

DiCamillo, Kate
, 144

Dictionary.com
, 244

discourses
, 159

A Doll’s House (Isben)
, 143

Dominie Reading and Writing Assessment Portfolio
, 26

Dragon Dictation
, 240, 244

Drowned City: Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans (Brown)
, 221

DRS.
, See Developmental Research Sequence Method (DRS)

DuFour, R.
, 5

Duke, N. K.
, 211, 224

Durán, L.
, 175

Durango, Julia
, 176

dyslexia

defined
, 244

engagement
, 245–246

UDL for
, 243–246

Dyson, A.
, 174

economic diversity of students
, 128–129

Edelman, Marian Wright
, 253

education

chalenges
, 59–60

complexity and systemic change in
, 59

humanizing
, 58–59

status of
, 69–70

Eisner, E. W.
, 196–197

ELA.
, See English language arts (ELA) instruction

ELL.
, See English language learners (ELL)

ELL educators, adolescent classrooms and
, 57, 60–70

bias and validity
, 65

findings
, 65–70

Latina/o teenagers
, 66–68

participant observation
, 61–63

research design
, 60–63

state’s lack of awareness
, 69

status of education
, 69–70

teaching profession
, 69–70

emergent bilinguals, multimodal literacy and
, 171–189, See also Reading Recovery (RR)

affordances
, 176

agentive and empowered
, 185–187

alien poem
, 182, 185

capturing perspectives
, 177–178

communication channels
, 175–176

findings
, 178–187

funds of knowledge
, 173, 179, 180

home resources
, 182

learning beyond linguistic
, 173–174

literacy lessons learned from
, 187–189

mother as resource
, 181

moving towards change
, 189

overview
, 172–173

sign making
, 174–175

text designers
, 176–177

empowerment
, 167

encouragement
, 165–166

engagement, UDL and
, 234

autism
, 240–241

dyslexia
, 245–246

English Learners
, 238–239

intellectual disability
, 243

English language arts (ELA) instruction
, 3, 4

English language learners (ELL)
, 73–86, See also ELL educators, adolescent classrooms and

fluency instruction
, 83–86

overview
, 74–75

phonics instruction
, 77–79

reading instruction
, 76–86

UDL for
, 236–239

vocabulary instruction
, 79–83

enjoyment
, 166

enlistment
, 165

equity

defined
, 166

OTL
, 1–13

recommendations for
, 3

equity stance

developing strategies to strengthen
, 50–51

to writing and grammar instruction
, 50

ESSA.
, See Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)

ethnographic inquiry
, 115–131

Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)
, 230–231, 232–233, 235

Excellent Ed (McAnulty)
, 218

expectation
, 166

experimental learning
, 189

explicit instruction, for vocabulary
, 80

expression, UDL and
, 234, 242–243, 244–245, See also Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

autism
, 240

dyslexia
, 244–245

English Learners
, 238

intellectual disability
, 242–243

Facebook
, 107–109

Farizan, Sarah
, 143

fatherhood, as radical fathering
, 104–106

Federal Summer Feeding Program
, 260

Finn, Patrick
, 128

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (FAMU)
, 255–256

Florida State University (FSU)
, 256

fluency instruction, for English language learners
, 83–86

Frank, Anne
, 143

Freedom Schools
, 251–266

books
, 254

college-aged students
, 253

core beliefs
, 262–263

counseling services
, 262

data sources
, 256

families/parents and
, 262

goal
, 261

grades and levels
, 254

Harambee
, 254, 257, 260, 261, 265

intergenerational collaboration and
, 253

IRC
, 253, 254

methods
, 255–256

reading books
, 257–261

schooling
, 262–263

serving whole child
, 261–262

social action project
, 260

staff
, 253

student scholars
, 253, 254–255

summer enrichment programs
, 253

Freedom Summer (Wiles)
, 254

Freire, P.
, 58–59, 140

Frozen,
, 180–181

The Future Generation (Martens)
, 100

Galton, M. J.
, 6

Garcia, A.
, 49

Gee, J. P.
, 159

gender
, 102–103

Gibson, K.
, 210

Giese, B.
, 210

global readiness, teaching for
, 198–203

cosmopolitanism
, 195–196

critical literacy instruction
, 202

integrated global learning
, 201–202

methods
, 196–198

multiliteracies
, 196

overview
, 194–195

situated practice
, 198, 201

transactional cross-cultural experiences
, 202–203

global ready graduate
, 194

glocalization
, 198

Gonzalez, N.
, 137

grade-level retention
, 7–10

geography as factor to
, 8

legislation
, 8

psychological impact
, 7–8

recommendations as alternatives to
, 9

social promotion and
, 8

grammar
, 37–51, See also Linguistic ideological dilemmas (LID)

descriptive approach to
, 39

equity stance to
, 50–51

overview
, 38–39

prescriptive approach to
, 39

written communication and
, 45–46

Grandpa, Is Everything Black Bad? (Holman)
, 254

Grant, K. L.
, 210

grounded theory
, 178

Hall, H. R.
, 148

Harambee
, 254, 257, 260, 261, 265

Harper, S. R.
, 252

Harry Potter series (Rowling)
, 221

Hattie, J.
, 5, 7, 8

Henkin, R.
, 58

Hermann-Wilmarth, Jill
, 142, 144–145

heteronormativity
, 138, 139, 140, 148–149

higher-order thinking
, 13

Hip Mama,
, 100

Holman, Sandy Lynne
, 254

Holmes, C. T.
, 8

Holzwarth, P.
, 176

home languages, in Reading Recovery (RR)
, 17–35, See also Reading Recovery (RR)

confidence and motivation
, 21–23

family involvement
, 31–33, 34–35

growth in speaking, reading, and writing
, 23–26

languages, connections between
, 26–27

reading strategies, connections in
, 27–28

writing strategies, connections in
, 28–30

homeless students

CPV
, 120–122, 125–127

educating, texts and discussions on
, 122–123

situated performances on supporting
, 119–120

humanizing education
, 58–59

hypermasculine
, 91

If You Could Be Mine (Farizan)
, 143

implicit instruction, for vocabulary
, 80

improvisation
, 189

integrated global learning
, 201–202

integrated reading curriculum (IRC)
, 254, 255

intellectual disability, UDL for
, 241–243

Intercultural Development Inventory
, 195

internalization, process of
, 158

International Literacy Association (ILA)
, 139

intersectional invisibility
, 142

intersectionality
, 141–142

Invitational Education (IE)
, 160

care
, 163

domains
, 163

elements
, 163

intentionality
, 164–165

optimism
, 164

respect
, 164

trust
, 164

Invitational Theory and Practice
, 160

IRC.
, See Integrated reading curriculum (IRC)

The Iridescence of Birds: A Book about Henri Matisse (MacLachlan)
, 219

Isben, Henrik
, 143

Iwai, Y.
, 210

Kidioms
, 239

King, Martin Luther, Jr.
, 252

Kozol, Jonathan
, 122, 126

Kucan, L.
, 81

Ladson-Billings, G.
, 254–255

Lambda Literary Awards
, 150

language arts classroom, valuing language diversity in
, 47–49

language purpose
, 10

Last Stop on Market Street (de la Peña)
, 222

Latina/o teenagers
, 66–68

Latino men, masculinity through zines/literacy
, 91–111, See also Moniz, Tomas; Rad Dad

overview
, 90–92

significance/implications
, 111

study findings
, 98–100

study methods
, 95–97

theoretical frameworks
, 93–95

writing and
, 92–93

learning intentions
, 10

LearnNC and Partnership for 21st Century Skills
, 194–195

Leont’ev, A. N.
, 159

LGBTQ+ identities
, 137, 138–139

LGBTQ+ inclusive classrooms
, 135–151

book lists
, 149–150

conversations with teachers
, 147–148

curricular and instructional resources
, 150–151

envisioning classrooms
, 148

including/contextualizing text
, 142–143

intersectionality
, 141–142

issues (discomfort and uncertainty)
, 148–149

literacy professionals, role of
, 138

overview
, 136–138

queer reading
, 145–147

reading straight books
, 144–145

resources for instruction
, 149–151

Teaching Tolerance website
, 150–151

texts, role of
, 138

theory and literature
, 140–142

LGBTQ+ linked text sets (LTS)
, 142–143

LID.
, See Linguistic ideological dilemmas (LID)

“Lifelines for Poor Children” (Heckman)
, 128

lifestyle differences
, 116–117

linguistic ideological dilemmas (LID)
, 39, 40–51

attention to grammar could improve/inhibit written communication
, 45–46

case study
, 41, 43, 47–49

context
, 41

grammar instruction may empower/marginalize linguistically minoritized students
, 46–47

greater linguistic flexibility in speech than writing
, 43–44

interviews
, 41

methods of study
, 40–43

valuing language diversity, case study
, 47–49

linguistic push pull
, 40

linked text sets (LTS)
, 142–143

literacy achievement.
, See Navajo school, revitalize literacy achievement in

“Literacy Education for Diverse Learners”
, 117

Literacy with an Attitude: Educating Working Class Children in Their Own Self-Interest (Finn)
, 128

literature circles
, 156, 160, 162

impact of
, 168

LivescribeSmartpen
, 244

Living at the Edge of the World: How I survived in the Tunnels of Grand Central Station (Bolnick & Bolnick)
, 126

Lopez, Steve
, 126

Louder Than a Bomb (Siskel & Jacobs)
, 48

LTS.
, See Linked text sets (LTS)

Ludwig, Trudy
, 254

Mace, Ron
, 231

machismo
, 90

Martens, China
, 100

Martin-Chang, S.
, 11

Marzano, R. J.
, 5

masculinity
, See also Latino men, masculinity through zines/literacy

machismo and
, 90

performance
, 90

radical fathering
, 104–106

reconstructing, through literacy
, 100–104

writing and
, 92–93

Matusitz, J.
, 159

Maurer, B.
, 176

McAnulty, Stacy
, 218

McBee Orzulak, M. J.
, 39, 40, 43, 47, 50, 51

McClintock, B.
, 11

McKeown, M. G.
, 81

McKinney-Vento Homeless Education Assistance Improvements Act
, 122–123, 125

Mehana, M. A.
, 5

Meyer, E. J.
, 140–141

Michael-Luna, S.
, 38, 51

Miller, J. A.
, 160

Mississippi Freedom Summer Project
, 252–253

mixed methods
, 196

mobility, impact of
, 4–7

accurate information about learning profile
, 6

guaranteed and viable curriculum
, 5–6

meta-analysis
, 5

social relationships
, 6–7

modeling, reading
, 11

The Mole People: Life in the Tunnels beneath New York City (Toth)
, 126

Moll, L. C.
, 137

Moniz, Tomas
, 95–97

community building
, 107–111

Facebook presence
, 107–109

fathering experience
, 104–106

gender and
, 102–103

mission and purpose
, 99–100

poetry and
, 102

storytelling
, 101

writing
, 100–104

Morris Micklewhite and the Tangerine Dress (Baldacchino)
, 145–146

Morton, J. K.
, 210

mother as resource
, 181

Moxley, K.
, 160

multilingualism
, 174

multiliteracies
, 174, 196

multimedia methods, for vocabulary instruction
, 81

multimodal literacy, emergent bilinguals and
, 171–189

affordances
, 176

agentive and empowered
, 185–187

capturing perspectives
, 177–178

communication channels
, 175–176

funds of knowledge
, 173, 179, 180

learning beyond linguistic
, 173–174

literacy lessons learned from
, 187–189

moving towards change
, 189

overview
, 172–173

sign making
, 174–175

text designers
, 176–177

National Association of School Psychologists
, 9

National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)
, 139

National Educational Technology Plan
, 231

National Education Association
, 91

National Reading Panel
, 80, 81

Native Americans
, 156

oral traditions
, 156

Navajo English
, 159

Navajo Nation Research Review Board
, 161

Navajo school, revitalize literacy achievement in
, 155–169

care
, 163

Chapters supporting
, 161

community building
, 161–162

empowerment
, 167

encouragement
, 165–166

enjoyment
, 166

enlistment
, 165

equity
, 166

expectation
, 166

intentionality
, 164–165

optimism
, 164

respect
, 164

trust
, 164

NCLB.
, See No Child Left Behind (NCLB)

NCTE.
, See National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)

Neff, D.
, 137

New Literacy Studies (NLS)
, 157–158

Newslela
, 237

NFFS.
, See North Florida Freedom Schools (NFFS)

The Night before Christmas (Moore)
, 214–215

No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
, 125, 232

North Florida Freedom Schools (NFFS)
, 255

novice teachers’ definitions of student diversity
, 115–131, See also Homeless students

CPV.
, See Cultural and Political Vignette (CPV)

ethnographic research design and framework
, 118–129

exposure to texts and discussions
, 122–123

findings and implications
, 129–131

situated performances
, 119–120

O’Donnell-Allen, C.
, 49

One Word from Sophia (Averbeck)
, 218

Open Our Eyes: Seeing the Invisible People of Homelessness (Hendricks)
, 126

opportunities to learn (OTL)
, 1–13

access to complex texts and
, 10–13

defined
, 3

grade-level retention
, 7–10

mobility and
, 4–7

overview
, 2–3

time distribution
, 3

oral language, code-meshing in
, 48–49

oral traditions, Native Americans
, 156

the other
, 56–57

Other Kinds of Families: Embracing Diversity in Schools (Turner-Vorbeck & Marsh)
, 122

OTL.
, See Opportunities to learn (OTL)

Our Tree Named Steve (Zweibel)
, 213

Pearson, P. David
, 160

“The Pedagogy of Poverty Versus Good Teaching” (Haberman)
, 128

peer-led discussion of text
, 12

“Perspectives for a Diverse America” (Teaching Tolerance website)
, 150–151

Pesco, D.
, 11

phonics instruction, for English language learners
, 77–79

alphabetic principle
, 78

six syllable types
, 79

PISA.
, See Program for International Student Assessment (PISA)

play
, 188–189

Play Sight Words
, 239

pleasure, wide reading for
, 12–13

“A Poem of Changgan” (Li Po)
, 143

“Poor Teaching for Poor Children in the Name of Reform” (Kohn)
, 128

Pose, Wobble, Flow: A Culturally Proactive Approach to Literacy Instruction (Garcia and O’Donnell-Allen)
, 49–50

Presiado, V.
, 175

Program for International Student Assessment (PISA)
, 4

Purdie-Vaughns, V.
, 142

Purkey, William
, 166

QR codes
, 236, 237, 247

Quality Matters
, 230

Queens College of the City University of New York
, 116

Queering Elementary Education (Bickmore)
, 148–149

queer reading, of LGBTQ+ inclusive text
, 145–147

Rachel and Her Children: Homelessness in America (Kozol)
, 122, 126

Rad Dad,
, 95

community building
, 107–111

data collection and analysis
, 96–97

as personal and political
, 100

purpose
, 99–100

radical fathering
, 104–106

structure and format
, 98–99

themes in
, 100–106

radical fathering
, 104–106

Rainbow Book List
, 150

Rao, A.
, 189

reading

close
, 11–12

as dialogic activity
, 160

modeling
, 11

peer-led reading tasks
, 12

for pleasure and study
, 12–13

scaffolding
, 12

think-aloud techniques
, 11

reading instruction, for English language learners
, 76–86

fluency instruction
, 83–86

phonics instruction
, 77–79

vocabulary instruction
, 79–83

Reading Recovery (RR)
, 17–35

analysis
, 21

data sources
, 20–21

findings
, 21–33

overview
, 18–19

participants
, 20

practical implications
, 33–35

research design
, 19–21

Reading Rockets
, 245–246

Reffitt, K.
, 160

representation, UDL and
, 233–234

autism
, 239–240

dyslexia
, 244

English Learners
, 236–238

intellectual disability
, 241–242

Roberts, T.
, 161

Romeo and Juliet (Shakespeare)
, 143

Roschelle, J.
, 159

Rosenblatt, L. M.
, 160

rubric, for diverse children’s literature
, 207–225

categories
, 219–222

continuum
, 214–219

development
, 212–214

discussion
, 222–224

limitations and possibilities
, 224–225

methods
, 211–212

overview
, 208–209

problem background
, 209–210

Ryan, Caitlin
, 142, 144–145

Ryan, C. L.
, 138

Sacks, Oliver
, 57, 58

Saliba, J.
, 8

Sam and Dave Dig a Hole (Barnett)
, 219, 221

Sandburg, Carl
, 48

Savage Inequalities (Kozol)
, 128

scaffolding reading, with complex text
, 12

Schmidt, J. J.
, 165–167

Seeing Voices (Sacks)
, 57

semantic map
, 82

Servant Leader Interns (SLI)
, 253–254, 259, 260, 262–265

Setterington, Ken
, 143

Siera, M.
, 210

Sight Word Bingo
, 239

sign making
, 174–175

Simi, D.
, 159

Sing! Karaoke App
, 246

situated literacy
, 157–158

collaborative learning and
, 159

situated performances on supporting homeless students
, 119–120, See also Cultural and Political Vignette (CPV)

situated practice
, 198, 201

The Skin that We Speak and Other Kinds of Families,
, 130

SLI.
, See Servant Leader Interns (SLI)

Smith, J. M.
, 147–148

Smitherman, G.
, 38, 40

Smolkin, G. B.
, 147

Smule
, 246

Snow, C. E.
, 81

social language
, 79–80

social languages
, 159

social purpose
, 10

social relationships
, 6–7

social semiotics
, 174–175

sociocultural constructivism
, 158

socioeconomic status (SES)
, 76

The Soloist: A Lost Dream, An Unlikely Friendship and the Redemptive Power of Music (Lopez)
, 126

Southern Poverty Law Center’s Teaching Tolerance.
, See Teaching Tolerance website

speech, linguistic flexibility
, 43–44

spontaneity
, 189

Standards for the Preparation of Literacy Professionals 2017 (ILA)
, 139

Stewart B. McKinney Act of 1987
, 125

Stonewall Book Awards
, 150

Story Kit
, 244

Street, B.
, 158

student VOC strategy
, 83

study, wide reading for
, 12–13

Swords, R.
, 46, 51

syllable types
, 79

synergistic collaboration
, 160–161

Szasz, T. S.
, 56

The Tale of Despereaux (DiCamillo)
, 144–145

Tallahassee, Florida
, 255

Tangel, D. M.
, 79

TEA.
, See Texas Education Agency (TEA)

teachers
, See also ELL educators, adolescent classrooms and; Novice teachers’ definitions of student diversity

linguistic ideological dilemmas
, 39, 40–51

students economic diversity and
, 128–129

UDL implications for
, 246–247

teaching for global readiness
, 198–203

cosmopolitanism
, 195–196

critical literacy instruction
, 202

integrated global learning
, 201–202

methods
, 196–198

multiliteracies
, 196

overview
, 194–195

situated practice
, 198, 201

transactional cross-cultural experiences
, 202–203

Teaching Tolerance website
, 150–151

Anti-bias Framework
, 150

“Perspectives for a Diverse America”
, 150–151

strength of
, 151

Teasley, S. D.
, 159

Texas Education Agency (TEA)
, 244

texts

complex, access to
, 10–13

cultural experiences and
, 29–31

LGBTQ+ inclusive classroom
, 138, 142–143, 145–147

linked text sets (LTS)
, 142–143

peer-led discussion of
, 12

Thank You, Mr. Falker (Polacco)
, 222

Theilheimer, R.
, 149

Thein, A. M.
, 149

think-aloud techniques
, 11

Ticknor, A. S.
, 138

Tomlinson, C. A.
, 163

Too Hot, Too Cold (Arnold)
, 221

transactional cross-cultural experiences
, 202–203

Transactional Theory of Literacy
, 160

Tree of Cranes (Say)
, 214

Tschida, C. M.
, 138

UDL.
, See Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

universal design (UD)

concept
, 231

philosophy
, 232

Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
, 229–247

autism
, 239–241

dyslexia
, 243–246

English Learners (ELs)
, 236–239

ESSA
, 230–231, 232–233, 235

framework
, 233–234

goal of
, 232

intellectual disability
, 241–243

origin
, 231–232

overview
, 230–231

philosophy
, 231

policy
, 232–233

principles for planning and application
, 234–246

technology tools
, 234

Urban Dictionary
, 99

Van Dijk, Lutz
, 143

Van Horn, S.
, 174, 189

Van Sluys, K.
, 189

virtual environments
, 175

virtual reality (VR) tools
, 237

visual schedule
, 242

vocabulary instruction, for English language learners
, 79–83

academic language
, 79–80, 81

association methods
, 81

capacity methods
, 81

classroom activities
, 81–83

explicit instruction
, 80

implicit instruction
, 80

multimedia methods
, 81

social language
, 79–80

Vocabulary PCS
, 239

Vygotsky, Lev
, 158, 233

Warren, J. R.
, 8

We Need Diverse Books,
, 224

Wheeler, R. S.
, 46, 51

wide reading
, 12–13

Wiles, Deborah
, 254

writing

equity stance to
, 50

home languages and experience
, 29–31

linguistic flexibility
, 43–44

and masculinity
, 92–93, See also Moniz, Tomas; Rad Dad

written assignments, alternative grammars in
, 49

written communication, attention to grammar and
, 45–46

Young, C. A.
, 147

YouTube
, 172, 174

Zapata, A.
, 174, 189

zines
, 92–93, See also Rad Dad

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
, 233

ZPD.
, See Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)