Index

Electrifying Mobility: Realising a Sustainable Future for the Car

ISBN: 978-1-83982-635-1, eISBN: 978-1-83982-634-4

ISSN: 2044-9941

Publication date: 17 October 2022

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2022), "Index", Parkhurst, G. and Clayton, W. (Ed.) Electrifying Mobility: Realising a Sustainable Future for the Car (Transport and Sustainability, Vol. 15), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 247-255. https://doi.org/10.1108/S2044-994120220000015002

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Note: Page numbers followed by “n” indicate notes.

Acidification
, 43

Action plan electric mobility
, 78–79

Active mobility
, 162–163

Activity-based Model (ActBM)
, 180–181

Adoption

of EVs, influences on
, 99

theories of technology adoption
, 98–99

Afreecar
, 66–67

Agency model
, 65

Alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs)
, 103

Aluminium (Al)
, 39

Analytical approaches
, 8

Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)
, 181

Artificial intelligence (AI)
, 199

Automated travel
, 129

Automobile ‘regime’
, 233

Automobility

electric automobility
, 233

electrification of
, 4–11

gasoline-powered automobility
, 23

Automotive industry
, 9, 194

distribution model of incumbent
, 17–18

EU regulations on CO2 emissions
, 57

‘Formula E-team’
, 79

importance, and inertia of
, 16

structure and economics of
, 54

Automotive supply chain
, 240

Automotive value chain
, 244

Autonomous vehicle (AV)
, 212, 227, 242

adoption
, 213

AV-related Statistics
, 217

questions on AV-related policy
, 221

Back-up electricity supply
, 66

Battery electric vehicles (BEVs)
, 7, 34–35, 78, 194, 232

production, distribution, and retail strategies
, 63–65

well-to-wheel-efficiency of
, 36

Battery exchange
, 166, 204–205

systems
, 204

Battery swap (see Battery exchange)

Battery swap station (BSS)
, 204

Battery/batteries
, 37, 192, 196, 240

assembly capacity
, 57

components
, 39–40

end-of-life
, 65–66

management systems
, 197

packs
, 59–62

second life applications, 65-66

technologies in battery development
, 198–202

Behaviour change
, 233

Behavioural spillover
, 108

Beijing Automotive Industrial Corporation (BAIC)
, 205

Better Place concept
, 65–66

BMW i3
, 64

Bosch company
, 192

Business models
, 10–11, 192

of EV retail
, 241

Business-to-consumer model
, 100

Capacity
, 21

Car

car-based motorisation
, 10

industry
, 14–19

infrastructure, charging, and land use patterns
, 19–21

Car culture
, 16, 244

and habits
, 21–23

Car financing schemes
, 130

Car manufacturers
, 205

Car mobility
, 84

electrification of
, 75

hegemony of ICE mobility
, 75–78

surge in full-electric mobility
, 80–84

surge in plug-in HEV mobility
, 78–80

Car ownership
, 243

Car production
, 25, 77

Car-dependence
, 243

transportation system
, 16

Carbon black
, 39

Carbon case in lifecycle perspective
, 36–39

Carbon emissions
, 14, 39, 57, 61, 63, 239

Carbon fibre reinforced plastic body (CFRP)
, 64

Carbon footprint (CF)
, 36

Carbon monoxide (CO)
, 44

Carbonaceous fuels
, 34

Cell assembly
, 61–62

Cell finishing
, 61–62

Cell manufacturing process
, 61

‘Cell-to-pack’ technology
, 57, 61

Ceramic electrolytes
, 200

Charger network coverage
, 139

Charging behaviours
, 122

Charging source of electricity
, 37

Charging etiquette
, 240

Charging infrastructure
, 19–21

Charging points
, 142, 162, 171, 179, 181–182, 195–197, 204–206, 240

Charging process
, 195, 201

Charging stations
, 163

charging process
, 165–166

charging speed
, 166–167

energy source
, 164–165

methodology for location of charging stations
, 176

power flow direction
, 167–168

technology for
, 163

type
, 165

Charging technologies
, 10

Chinese EV market
, 205

Circular economy concept
, 235

Clean vehicle technologies
, 194

Climate change
, 4, 14, 40, 103

Co-dynamics of car drivers and manufacturers
, 85–87

CO2 emissions
, 40

‘Cocooning’ function of automobile
, 22

Communication channels
, 98

Comprehensive ReCiPe evaluation scheme
, 42

Congestion pricing scheme
, 213

Connected and autonomous vehicles (CAV)
, 213

Construction costs
, 173

Contactless charging method (see Wireless charging method)

Conventional batteries
, 200

COP26 Declaration
, 232

Copper (Cu)
, 39

Costs
, 173

economic-financial criteria
, 174

and leasing options
, 99–100

of ownership
, 121

types of
, 179

COVID-19 pandemic
, 194

Cplex optimiser
, 179

Cultural narratives
, 22

Customer perception of EVs
, 136–137

Decarbonisation
, 9, 120

Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
, 58

Demographics and early adopters
, 102

Detouring, to recharge
, 123

Diffusion of innovation theory
, 98

Digital ethnography
, 8

Directional smart charging
, 105

Discourse analysis
, 8, 75

Document analysis
, 75

Driver(s)

Adopting
, 127

challenges of being EV
, 123, 139–144

of conventional cars
, 122–123

Driving experience

EV
, 104

substantial negative impact on
, 140

Dynamic ride-sharing (DRS)
, 212, 221, 224

Dynamism
, 240

Dysprosium (Dy)
, 59

E-boards
, 34

E-commerce companies
, 194

E-mobility in Netherlands
, 72

E-scooters
, 7

Eco Ranking platform
, 127

Eco-driving
, 10

Economic-financial issues of charging stations
, 172–173, 174

Electric automobility
, 233

Electric bicycle (E-bike)
, 7, 34, 38

Electric car blogger
, 21

Electric car charging

challenges
, 162–163

criteria and parameters for location of charging stations
, 168–176

future trends in charging station research
, 182–184

infrastructure deployment
, 160

long-term policies of European Union
, 161

methodology for location of charging stations
, 176–182

technology for charging stations
, 163–168

Electric car owner

advice and recommendations
, 150–152

challenges of being EV driver
, 139–144

customer perception of EVs
, 136–137

EV owner
, 137–138

learning to EV owner
, 144–146

realities of EV ownership
, 137

sharing experiences
, 147–149

upscaling of innovations
, 138–139

Electric car production
, 54

BEV production, distribution, and retail strategies
, 63–65

EV manufacturing
, 59–62

EV supply chain
, 56–59

ICE and EV comparison
, 54–56

lifecycle management and end-of-life battery packs
, 65–66

L-class vehicles
, 66–67

Electric cars
, 5, 8, 34

attitudes towards acquisition, 215-227

beyond battery, potential solutions for future development
, 202–205

battery components
, 39–40

condition for achieving sustainability mobility
, 243–244

effects on local air quality
, 43–46

energy consumption of
, 34–36

EV market outlook
, 193–195

factors influencing rate of transition
, 236–239

follow-the-money analysis of vehicle electrification investments
, 195–198

full environmental impacts
, 40–43

future uncertainty
, 240–242

from life cycle perspective
, 39

technologies in battery development
, 198–202

Electric mini cars
, 38

Electric mobility
, 35, 193

Electric motive power
, 5

Electric powertrains
, 22

Electric road service (ERS)
, 203–204

Electric SAV service (SAEV service)
, 219

Electric skate
, 34

Electric vehicle (EV)
, 5–6, 14–15, 17–19, 97–98, 120, 136, 192, 212

buying or owning EV influence other behaviours
, 107–110

challenges of being EV driver
, 139

costs and leasing options
, 99–100

customer perception of
, 136–137

demographics and early adopters
, 102

environmental credentials
, 101

environmental identity, symbolism, and social influence
, 103–104

EV-related Statistics
, 223

experience and trust
, 104

ICE conversion to
, 236

influences on adoption of
, 99

infrastructural challenges139–140

innovative technologies for
, 160

innovativeness
, 102

manufacturing
, 59–62

market
, 193, 238

owner
, 137–138

pre-COVID 19 forecasts of production
, 54

preferences on EV purchase and usage
, 222–223

range and charging concerns
, 100–101

realities of EV ownership
, 137

smart charging
, 104–106

social
, 142–177

supply chain
, 56–59

technological
, 141–142

temporal challenges
, 140–141

theories of technology adoption
, 98–99

Electrification
, 5–6, 9, 34, 232–233

of car mobility practices
, 75–84

electrification-related technologies
, 195

of mobility sector
, 7

Electrified kick scooters
, 34

Electrode assembly
, 61

Electrode manufacturing
, 61

Electrolytes
, 201

Energy consumption of electric cars
, 34

BEVs
, 34–35

fuel cell electric car
, 35–36

well-to-wheel-efficiency of BEVs
, 36

Energy source
, 164–165

Energy-intensive production process
, 57

Environmental credentials of EVs
, 101, 103

condition for achieving sustainability mobility
, 243–244

effects on local air quality
, 43–46

energy consumption of
, 34–36

fine dust
, 41, 43

Particulate emissions
, 43

Particulate matter (PM)
, 44

Environmental identity
, 103–104

Environmental issues of charging stations
, 176

‘Etiquette cards’
, 143–144

European stimulus plans
, 194

EV transition
, 234, 243

Experience and trust
, 104

Ferrous Sulphate
, 39

FIAT 500e
, 64

Financial flows analysis
, 8

Fiscal structure
, 128–129

Flow Capturing Location Model (FCLM)
, 182

Follow-the-money methodology
, 192, 195

analysis of vehicle electrification investments
, 195–198

increment of amount invested on electrical vehicles technologies
, 196

investment analysis by components
, 197

Forecasting Evolutionary Activity-Travel of Households and Environmental Repercussions (FEATHERS)
, 181

‘Formula E-team’
, 79

Free trials
, 99

Fuel cell electric vehicle (FCV), 7, 35-36

Gasoline-powered automobility
, 23

General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS)
, 179

General Motors
, 16–17, 202

Genetic Algorithms (GA)
, 179

Geographic Information System (GIS)
, 181, 197

Global positioning system (GPS)
, 212

Global Value Chain (GVC)
, 194, 196

Graphite
, 39

Green charging stations
, 183

‘Green’ e-mobility marketing
, 236

Greener electronics production
, 43

Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG emissions)
, 36, 214, 239

Grid-to-vehicle (V2G)
, 105

Habitual behaviours
, 107

Hegemony of ICE mobility
, 75–78

Heuristic method
, 179, 197

‘High-octane’ approach
, 236

Hire Purchase arrangements
, 242

Home locations
, 224–227

future scenario statistics
, 225

responses regarding home location
, 228

Hybrid powertrain systems
, 192

Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV)
, 78, 222

purchasers
, 222

Hydrogen fuel cell
, 7

‘ICEing’ phenomenon
, 19, 22

Identity
, 23

environmental
, 103–104

person’s personal
, 22

self-identity
, 103

sense of
, 146

subcultural
, 23

Impact evaluation schemes
, 41

Infinity Power Solutions
, 199

Inflation
, 236

Informal support networks
, 137

Initial public offerings (IPO)
, 192–193

Innovations

in manufacturing process
, 62

upscaling of
, 138–139

Innovative technologies for electric vehicles
, 160

Innovativeness
, 102

Integer Programming (IP)
, 179

‘Intel inside’ strategy
, 65

Internal combustion engine (ICE)
, 5, 6, 54, 73, 234

‘city car’
, 237

co-evolution of ICE-based and electric mobility
, 87–88

hegemony of ICE mobility
, 75–78

ICE-EV hybrid
, 8

production strategies
, 233

vehicles (ICEVs)
, 34–35, 42, 97, 136, 140, 141, 162

International Energy Agency (IEA)
, 195

Interpersonal communication
, 103

Interview analysis
, 75

Land use
, 171

Land use patterns
, 19–21

Last-mile logistics
, 194

Learning to EV owner
, 144–146

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
, 36, 42–43

Lifecycle impact assessment
, 43

Lifecycle impact of electric cars

carbon case in lifecycle perspective
, 36–39

electric cars effects on local air quality
, 43–46

electric cars from life cycle perspective
, 39–43

energy consumption of electric cars
, 34–36

Lifecycle management
, 65–66

Liquid fuels
, 128

Lithium (Li)
, 199, 240

Lithium carbonate equivalent (LCE)
, 198

Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP)
, 62

Lithium mining
, 200

Lithium peroxide (Li2O2)
, 202

Lithium-air technologies
, 196–197, 200

Lithium-ion technology
, 192

Lithium–air batteries
, 200–202

Log-Gaussian Cox Process
, 180

Long-distance trips
, 123

Low-carbon mobility
, 14, 120

car culture and habits
, 21–23

car industry
, 14–19

car infrastructure, charging, and land use patterns
, 19–21

drop-in solution
, 14–16

political coalitions
, 24

Magnetic induction charging dynamic practices (MIC-D practices)
, 166

Magnetic induction charging static practices (MIC-S practices)
, 166

Manganese (Mn)
, 39

MATLAB simulation
, 182

Maximum coverage model
, 180

Mechanical process
, 202

Meta-heuristic method
, 179

Metal-air technologies
, 196–197

Metal–air batteries
, 202

Microsimulation model
, 213

Mineral resource depletion (MRD)
, 39

Mixed-Integer Programming (MIP)
, 179

Mobile phones
, 212

Mobility

disruptors
, 129–130

electrification of mobility sector
, 7

industry
, 194

Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS)
, 73, 194, 242

Monte Carlo simulation
, 182

Motorisation
, 196

Multi-criteria decision analysis
, 181–182

Multi-criteria decision-making methods (MCDM)
, 181

Multi-Unit Residential Buildings (MURBs)
, 140

Multilevel perspective (MLP)
, 74

Multisourcing
, 57

Negative spillover
, 108

Negative stereotypes of EV
, 136

Neighbourhood effect
, 103

Neodymium (Nd)
, 59

Netherlands

co-dynamics of car drivers and manufacturers
, 85–87

conceptual framing and method
, 74–75

degree of reconfiguration
, 95

electric car mobility in
, 74

electrification of car mobility practices
, 75–84

emergence of e-mobility
, 72–73

evolving degree of obduracy
, 94

ICE-based and electric mobility, co-evolution of
, 87–88

New European driving cycle (NEDC)
, 34

Nickel, manganese, and cobalt (NMC)
, 61

Nickel (Ni)
, 39

Nio (car manufacturer)
, 205

ES6 and ES8
, 64

Nissan

Leaf
, 64

Operational costs
, 173

activity-based model
, 180–181

future trends in charging station research
, 182–184

Monte Carlo simulation
, 182

multi-criteria decision analysis
, 181–182

optimisation methods and inferential models
, 176–180

other methodologies
, 182

Original equipment manufacturers (OEM)
, 192

Ownership of charging stations
, 183

Ozone layer destruction
, 43

Paris Agreement (see UN Climate Agreement)

Parking Generation Rate Method (PGRM)
, 182

Particle swarm optimisation (PSO) 179

Passenger-km travelled (PKT)
, 37

Personal Contract Hire (car financing schemes)
, 130

Personal Contract Purchase
, 242

‘Personal mobility aids’
, 244

Phosphoric acids
, 39

Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV)
, 79, 142, 194, 222, 232

surge in plug-in HEV mobility
, 78–80

Plug-in EVs. (PEVs)
, 214

Policy mix
, 87–88

Policymakers
, 14

Political-economic theory
, 8

Polymeric electrolytes
, 200

Potassium superoxide (KO2)
, 201

Powertrain
, 54, 197

battery
, 55

battery electric
, 54

BEV
, 55

diesel
, 222

efficiency
, 7–8

Electric
, 236

electrifying
, 63

EV
, 121

ICE
, 55

proportions of powertrain manufacturing costs for ICEV and BEV
, 60

Tesla
, 236

Practical aspects of car culture
, 22

Praseodymium (Pr)
, 59

Pre-COVID 19 forecasts of electric vehicle production
, 54

Private cars
, 15

Private Equity-related investments
, 193

Pro-car mayors
, 14

Psychological factors
, 100

Psychological theories of personality
, 8

Public charging
, 234

infrastructure
, 139–140

Public transport
, 162

Purpose dimension of travel
, 125–127

Quantitative travel data analysis
, 8

‘Range anxiety’
, 84, 162

‘Range virility’
, 244

Realities of EV ownership
, 137

‘Rebound effect’
, 236

Rechargeable lead-acid battery
, 5

ReCiPe

aggregation scheme
, 43

evaluation scheme
, 39, 42

LCA impact evaluation scheme
, 41

Renault (car manufacturer)

Zoe
, 64

Representational aspects of car culture
, 21

Research and Development (R&D)
, 194

Resources-related impact categories
, 41–42

Ride sharing platforms
, 129

Road transport
, 9

‘Salary sacrifice’ tax efficient purchase scheme
, 241

Shared Automated Vehicle (SAV)
, 219, 227

access costs
, 212

technologies
, 212

fleets
, 221

pricing scenarios
, 214, 219

rides
, 224

SAV-related statistics
, 220

Self-driving

cars, 215-227

technologies
, 218

vehicles
, 216

Self-identity
, 103

Self-presentation
, 8

Short-duration vehicle hire services
, 129

Singlet oxygen
, 201

Sion Power® (battery manufacturer)
, 199

‘Skateboard’ concept
, 65

Smart charging
, 104–106

Smart Management System for Electric Vehicle recharge (SMS-EV)
, 180

‘Smoke-shading’
, 4

Social influence
, 103–104, 152

Social media
, 236

Social norms
, 8, 99, 103

Social practice theory (SPT)
, 8–9, 74–75

Social practices
, 74, 123

Socio-demographic attributes
, 174–175

Sociotechnical transition
, 8

Solid system technology
, 200

Solid-state batteries
, 199, 201, 240

Solid-state technologies
, 196–197, 199

Space–time geography
, 8

Spatial dimension of travel
, 122–123

Spatial distribution of trips
, 214

Sports utility vehicles (SUV)
, 63

State of charge (SOC)
, 101

Storage systems, 185n1

Style dimension of travel
, 127–128

‘Sub-car’ vehicles
, 34

Sulphuric acids
, 39

‘Supercars’
, 236

Supportive EV etiquettes
, 241

Survey Sampling International (SSI)
, 214

Sustainable mobility
, 233, 244

electric car as condition for achieving
, 243–244

Sustainable transport modes
, 162

Symbolism
, 103–104

Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS)
, 181

Technological issues of charging stations
, 171–172

Technology acceptance model
, 98

Technology adoption theories
, 8, 98–99

Technology for charging stations
, 163–168

Temporal dimension of travel
, 123–124

Tesla (car manufacturer)
, 235

Tesla Model S
, 63, 64

Tesla Model X
, 59

Titanium (Ti)
, 39

Total cost of ownership (TCO)
, 195

Tracxn database
, 192–193, 195–196, 203

Traditional batteries
, 199

Traditional car
, 97

Traditional ICEVs
, 65

Transactions and travel behaviours
, 224

Transformation

path of car mobility practices
, 88

of practices
, 88

of social practices
, 99

Transition pathway
, 88

Transport planning
, 173–174, 175

Transport system
, 129

Transport-derived emissions
, 9

Travel behaviours
, 107, 224

Travel patterns
, 121–122

change in future
, 128

EV difference with conventional cars
, 120–121

fiscal structure
, 128–129

mobility disruptors
, 129–130

purpose dimension of travel
, 125–127

spatial dimension of travel
, 122–123

style dimension of travel
, 127–128

technical performance
, 128

temporal dimension of travel
, 123–124

Trip-making patterns
, 240

Trust, experience and
, 104

UN Climate Agreement
, 80

Uncertainty in rate of EV transition
, 240–242

Unidirectional smart charging
, 105

Unified Cell Concept
, 59

Urban planning
, 171–172

US Census Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS)
, 215

US National Household Travel Survey
, 214

Value of travel time (VOTT)
, 218

Vehicle miles travelled (VMT)
, 212

Vehicle range
, 10, 124, 126, 184, 243

Vehicle-to-grid (V2G)
, 65, 105–106

Vehicle(s)
, 120, 203

acquisition decision
, 215

follow-the-money analysis of vehicle electrification investments
, 195–198

manufacturers
, 55, 58

vehicle-related challenges
, 227

Venture Capital (VC)
, 193

Vertical integration and production strategies
, 56–59

Volatile organic compounds (VOC)
, 44

VW (car manufacturer)

ID
, 65

Sustainability performance
, 235

Well-to-wheel-efficiency of BEVs
, 36

Wireless charging method
, 166

Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP)
, 34

Zero emission vehicle (ZEV)
, 9, 43, 77

Zero PM-emission vehicles
, 46

Zero-carbon energy
, 5

Zinc–air batteries
, 202