There has been much research on city marketing, but some practical aspects remain unaddressed. One challenge is the development of a distinctive city identity. Traditional marketing tactics often ignore, deny, and marginalize the city identity. A more integrated and holistic approach is needed. As a complementary tool, city branding can overcome the shortcomings associated with traditional marketing. The purpose of this chapter is to show through case studies how two cities with different conditions went about developing their respective brand identities and illustrate how the identities were established through brand elements and promoted through coordinated marketing programs. Based on the two case studies, this chapter presents a process model for developing an identity in city branding. The model accommodates two different approaches to developing city identities. The first is applicable in the situation where a city is already strongly identified with its prominent existing heritage and cultural assets. The second is applicable in the situations where a city does not have prominent existing assets.
Lee, J.-h. (2009), "Chapter 15 DEVELOPING DISTINCTIVE CITY BRANDING Cases of Anseong and Bucheon, South Korea", Cai, L.A., Gartner, W.C. and María Munar, A. (Ed.) Tourism Branding: Communities in Action (Bridging Tourism Theory and Practice, Vol. 1), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 207-218. https://doi.org/10.1108/S2042-1443(2009)0000001017Download as .RIS
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