Organizational Hybridity: Perspectives, Processes, Promises
ISBN: 978-1-83909-355-5, eISBN: 978-1-83909-354-8
Publication date: 7 December 2020
(2020), "Prelims", Besharov, M.L. and Mitzinneck, B.C. (Ed.) Organizational Hybridity: Perspectives, Processes, Promises (Research in the Sociology of Organizations, Vol. 69), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. i-xv. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0733-558X20200000069015
Emerald Publishing Limited
Copyright © 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited
Research in the Sociology of Organizations
Series Editor: Michael Lounsbury
|Volume 41:||Religion and Organization Theory|
|Volume 42:||Organizational Transformation and Scientific Change: The Impact of Institutional Restructuring on Universities and Intellectual Innovation|
|Volume 43:||Elites on Trial|
|Volume 44:||Institutions and Ideals: Philip Selznick’s Legacy for Organizational Studies|
|Volume 45:||Towards a Comparative Institutionalism: Forms, Dynamics and Logics Across the Organizational Fields of Health and Higher Education|
|Volume 46:||The University Under Pressure|
|Volume 47:||The Structuring of Work in Organizations|
|Volume 48A:||How Institutions Matter!|
|Volume 48B:||How Institutions Matter!|
|Volume 49:||Multinational Corporations and Organization Theory: Post Millennium Perspectives|
|Volume 51:||Categories, Categorization and Categorizing: Category Studies in Sociology, Organizations and Strategy at the Crossroads|
|Volume 52:||Justification, Evaluation and Critique in the Study of Organizations: Contributions from French Pragmatist Sociology|
|Volume 53:||Structure, Content and Meaning of Organizational Networks: Extending Network Thinking|
|Volume 54A:||Multimodality, Meaning, and Institutions|
|Volume 54B:||Multimodality, Meaning, and Institutions|
|Volume 55:||Social Movements, Stakeholders and Non-Market Strategy|
|Volume 56:||Social Movements, Stakeholders and Non-Market Strategy|
|Volume 57:||Toward Permeable Boundaries of Organizations?|
|Volume 58:||Agents, Actors, Actorhood: Institutional Perspectives on the Nature of Agency, Action, and Authority|
|Volume 59:||The Production of Managerial Knowledge and Organizational Theory: New Approaches to Writing, Producing and Consuming Theory|
|Volume 60:||Race, Organizations, and the Organizing Process|
|Volume 61:||Routine Dynamics in Action|
|Volume 62:||Thinking Infrastructures|
|Volume 63:||The Contested Moralities of Markets|
|Volume 64:||Managing Inter-Organizational Collaborations: Process Views|
|Volume 65A:||Microfoundations of Institutions|
|Volume 65B:||Microfoundations of Institutions|
|Volume 66:||Theorizing the Sharing Economy: Variety and Trajectories of New Forms of Organizing|
|Volume 67:||Tensions and Paradoxes in Temporary Organizing|
|Volume 68:||Macrofoundations: Exploring the Institutionally Situated Nature of Activity|
Research in the Sociology Of Organizations Volume 69
Organizational Hybridity: Perspectives, Processes, Promises
Marya L. Besharov
University of Oxford, United Kingdom
Bjoern C. Mitzinneck
University of Groningen, Netherlands
United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China
Emerald Publishing Limited
Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UK
First edition 2021
Copyright © 2021 Emerald Publishing Limited.
Open access contract; Chapter 3 ‘Taking Hybridity for Granted: Institutionalization and Hybrid Identification’ © 2021 Mary Ann Glynn, Elizabeth A. Hood and Benjamin D. Innis. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This chapter is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial & non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode.
Open access contract; Chapter 8 ‘New hybrid forms and their liability of novelty’ © 2021 Ali Aslan Gümüsay and Michael Smets. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This chapter is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial & non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode
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A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN: 978-1-83909-355-5 (Print)
ISBN: 978-1-83909-354-8 (Online)
ISBN: 978-1-83909-356-2 (Epub)
ISSN: 0733-558X (Series)
|List of Tables and Figures||vii|
|Chapter 1 Heterogeneity in Organizational Hybridity: A Configurational, Situated, and Dynamic Approach
Marya L. Besharov and Bjoern C. Mitzinneck
|Section A: Multiple Theoretical Lenses|
|Chapter 2 Hybridity and Institutional Logics
Anne-Claire Pache and Patricia H. Thornton
|Chapter 3 Taking Hybridity for Granted: Institutionalization and Hybrid Identification
Mary Ann Glynn, Elizabeth A. Hood and Benjamin D. Innis
|Chapter 4 Reasoning with Heuristics: A New Approach to Categories Theory and the Evaluation of Hybrids
Tyler Wry and Rodolphe Durand
|Chapter 5 A Paradoxical Approach to Hybridity: Integrating Dynamic Equilibrium and Disequilibrium Perspectives
Wendy K. Smith and Miguel Pina e Cunha
|Section B: Varied Empirical Contexts|
|Chapter 6 Business Sustainability as a Context for Studying Hybridity
|Chapter 7 How the Zebra Got Its Stripes: Individual Founder Imprinting and Hybrid Social Ventures
Matthew Lee and Julie Battilana
|Chapter 8 New Hybrid Forms and Their Liability of Novelty
Ali Aslan Gümüsay and Michael Smets
|Chapter 9 Let’s Talk About Problems: Advancing Research on Hybrid Organizing, Social Enterprises, and Institutional Context
Johanna Mair and Nikolas Rathert
|Section C: Multilevel and Dynamic Approaches|
|Chapter 10 Shift in Hybridity in Response to Environmental Complexity: The Transformation of the Italian Guardia di Finanza
Tommaso Ramus, Antonino Vaccaro, Pietro Versari and Stefano Brusoni
|Chapter 11 Hybrid Agency: Sheltered Workshops (1941–2019)
|Chapter 12 Institutional Settlements and Organizational Hybridity: The Rise and Fall of Supervised Consumption Sites
Trish Reay, Elizabeth Goodrick and Chang Lu
|Chapter 13 Legitimacy Trade-Offs in Hybrid Fields: An Illustration Through Microfinance, Impact Investing and Social Entrepreneurship
Guillermo Casasnovas and Myrto Chliova
List of Tables and Figures
List of Tables
|Table 1.1||Summary of Chapters and Research Approaches in this Volume||12|
|Table 2.1||Characteristics of 10 Most Cited Papers as of May 2019 in the Web of Science with Key Words “Hybrid,” “Institution,” and “Logic”||32|
|Table 2.2||Characteristics of 10 Most Recent Papers as of May 2019 in the Web of Science with Key Words “Hybrid,” “Institution,” and “Logic”||34|
|Table 2.3||Attributes of 10 Most Cited Papers for Key Words “Organizational Hybridity” and “Institutional Logics,” Web of Science 2019, Discipline, Level, and Methods of Analysis||41|
|Table 2.4||Attributes of 10 Most Recent Papers for Key Words “Organizational Hybridity” and “Institutional Logics,” Web of Science 2019, Discipline, Level, and Methods of Analysis||41|
|Table 5.1||The Logics of Dynamic Equilibrium and Permanent Dialectics||96|
|Table 5.2||How a Paradox Perspective Attunes Scholars with Specific Aspects of Hybridity||104|
|Table 7.1||Commercialization Factor Analysis||149|
|Table 7.2||Descriptive Statistics for Models Predicting Social Venture Commercialization||153|
|Table 7.3||Models Predicting Social Venture Commercialization||155|
|Table 7.4||Models Predicting Social Venture Commercialization (Alternative Factor-based Commercialization Measure)||156|
|Table 8.1||Data Overview||175|
|Table 9.1||Most Common Type of Competition in Three Social Problem Domains and Three Countries||200|
|Table 9.2||Likelihood That Organizations Competing with Social Enterprises in a Social Problem Domain Share the Same Legal Form, Across Three Countries and Social Problem Domains||201|
|Table 10.1||Indicators of GdF Performance||217|
|Table 10.2||Data Collected||219|
|Table 10.3||GdF’s Structural Changes Over Time||221|
|Table 11.1||Co-evolution of Sheltered Workshops (1841–2017)||243|
|Table A11.1||Exemplary Texts||264|
|Table A11.2||Digital Repositories||266|
|Table A11.3||Pioneering Sheltered Workshops||267|
|Table A11.4||Regulations Framing the Operations of Sheltered Workshops in the United States||269|
|Table A11.5||Selected Associations and Advocacy Groups||270|
List of Figures
|Fig. 1.1||A Configurational, Situated, and Dynamic Framework of Organizational Hybridity||6|
|Fig. 3.1||Number of Hybridity Articles by Year||58|
|Fig. 3.2||External Evaluation of Hybrid Identities Through Phases of Institutionalization||63|
|Fig. 4.1||Satisficing (Financial Prioritized)||81|
|Fig. 4.2||Satisficing (Social Prioritized)||82|
|Fig. 4.3||Lexicographic (Financial First)||83|
|Fig. 4.4||Lexicographic (Social First)||83|
|Fig. 4.5||Elimination by Aspects (Financial First)||84|
|Fig. 4.6||Elimination by Aspects (Social First)||84|
|Fig. 6.1||Different Forms of Hybridity for Business Sustainability||121|
|Fig. 7.1||Distribution of Commercialization||150|
|Fig. 8.1||Engaging with Novelty of Hybrid Forms||176|
|Fig. 9.1||Perceptions of Growth Opportunities in the Social Services Domain Across Three Countries||197|
|Fig. 9.2||Perceptions of Growth Opportunities Within One Country (Germany) and Across Three Domains||198|
|Fig. 9.3||Perceptions of Institutional Challenges in the Social Services Domain Across Three Countries||198|
|Fig. 9.4||Reported Barriers for Growth and Innovation in the Social Services Domain Across Three Countries||199|
|Fig. 9.5||Scatterplot of Legal Form Concentration Among Social Enterprises and Competing Organizations in a Social Problem Domain||202|
|Fig. 9.6||Scatterplot of Legal Form Concentration of Competing Organizations in a Domain, and Operating Mode Diversity of Social Enterprises||203|
|Fig. 10.1||Process Model of the Integration of Logics Within Hybrid Organizations||232|
|Fig. 11.1||The Evolution of Sheltered Workshops||242|
|Fig. 13.1||The Effects of Field Hybridity on Organizational Legitimacy||296|
Julie Battilana, Harvard University, United States. Julie is the Joseph C. Wilson Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School and the Alan L. Gleitsman Professor of Social Innovation at Harvard Kennedy School. She is the founder and academic director of the Social Innovation and Change Initiative (SICI). Her research examines hybrid organizations that pursue a social mission while engaging in commercial activities to sustain their operations.
Marya L. Besharov, University of Oxford, United Kingdom. Marya is a Professor of Organisations and Impact at Saïd Business School, University of Oxford. She studies how organizations and leaders navigate competing goals. Her work has been published in leading journals such as Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal, and Academy of Management Review, among other outlets.
Stefano Brusoni, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. Stefano is a Professor of Technology and Innovation Management at ETH Zurich. He studies innovation and learning processes in individuals and organizations; in the field and in the lab. He has published on several journals, including Organization Science, Administrative Science Quarterly, Strategic Management Journal, Academy of Management Journal, and Research Policy.
Guillermo Casasnovas, Esade Business School, Spain. Guillermo is a Postdoctoral Fellow at Esade Business School and holds a PhD from the University of Oxford, Saïd Business School. His research is focused on the early moments of new markets and fields, with special emphasis on empirical contexts at the intersection of social, business, and public sectors.
Myrto Chliova, Aalto University School of Business, Finland. Myrto is an Assistant Professor of Entrepreneurship at Aalto University School of Business. She received her PhD from Esade Business School. Her research falls at the intersection of organization studies and entrepreneurship, with a focus on the ways that emergent organizations attempt to tackle grand challenges such as poverty, inequality and refugee crises.
Miguel Pina e Cunha, Nova School of Business and Economics, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal. Miguel is the Amélia de Mello Foundation Professor of Leadership at Nova School of Business and Economics, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal. His research deals with organization as process and paradox. He has published his work in journals such as the Academy of Management Review, Journal of Management, Journal of Management Studies, and Organization Studies and Strategic Organization. He recently co-authored Positive Organizational Behavior (Routledge, forthcoming) and co-edited Management, Organizations, and Contemporary Social Theory (Routledge, 2019). He received his PhD from Tilburg University.
Silvia Dorado, University of Massachusetts, United States. Silvia is an Associate Professor at the University of Massachusetts, Boston. She conducts research on social innovation and social ventures. Her work has been published in top management journals including the Academy of Management Journal, Business and Society, Journal of Business Venturing, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, and Organization Studies.
Rodolphe Durand, HEC Paris, France. Rodolphe is the Joly Family Professor of Purposeful Leadership at HEC-Paris and the Academic Director of the Society and Organizations Institute, which he launched in 2009. His research focuses on the normative and cognitive dimensions of firms’ performance, especially in the context of major environmental and social challenges.
Mary Ann Glynn, Boston College, Carroll School of Management, United States. Mary Ann is the Joseph F. Cotter Professor of Management & Organization at Boston College. She investigates micro-level cognitive processes (learning and creativity) and macro-level cultural influences (social norms and institutional arrangements) as well as their interaction. She is a Fellow and Past President of the Academy of Management.
Elizabeth Goodrick, Florida Atlantic University College of Business, United States. Elizabeth is a Professor and Dean’s Distinguished Research Fellow at Florida Atlantic University. She studies health care professionals and organizations from an institutional perspective. Her work focused on the institutional context of professional practices and role identity has been published in both organizational and health care journals.
Ali Aslan Gümüsay, University of Hamburg, Germany. Ali is a Postdoctoral Researcher at the University of Hamburg and Head of Research Group at the Humboldt Institute for Internet & Society. His research consists of four streams: values, meaning & hybridity in entrepreneurial settings; grand challenges, innovation & new forms of organizing; societal complexity & engaged scholarship; and digitalization, AI & the future of work/leadership.
Tobias Hahn, Universidad Ramon Llull, ESADE Business School, Barcelona, Spain. Tobias is a Full Professor at ESADE Business School in Barcelona, Spain. He holds a PhD in Economic and Social Sciences and a Master in Environmental Sciences. His main research areas are tensions and paradoxes in business sustainability and CSR, sustainability performance, and sustainability strategies. His work has been published in, among others, the Academy of Management Review, Organization Studies, Ecological Economics, Journal of Business Ethics, and Business & Society.
Elizabeth A. Hood, Boston College, Carroll School of Management, United States. Elizabeth is a PhD student at Boston College. Her research explores the impact and evolution of regulations in the business environment. She focuses on the interaction between emerging products and changing regulations.
Benjamin D. Innis, Boston College, Carroll School of Management, United States. Benjamin is a PhD candidate at Boston College. His research explores how innovative and/or disruptive ideas and practices diffuse through, are legitimated into, and affect existing systems of meaning. Drawing on practice theory and institutional theory, he studies empirical phenomena such as categorization and institutionalization in fields of cultural production.
Matthew Lee, New York University, United States. Matthew is an Assistant Professor of Management & Organizations at the New York University Stern School of Business. His research focuses on organizational hybridity, and in particular how businesses organize to pursue social welfare and environmental sustainability goals alongside commercial performance.
Chang Lu, University of British Columbia, Canada. Chang is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at Blockchain@UBC. His research focuses on field-level change, nascent technology adoption and social innovation. He has studied these topics in contexts such as addiction treatment, indigenous gambling, and Blockchain adoption in healthcare. He received his PhD from the University of Alberta.
Johanna Mair, Hertie School, Germany. Johanna is a Professor for Organization, Strategy and Leadership at the Hertie School and a Distinguished Fellow at the Stanford Center on Philanthropy and Civil Society. Her research on organizations, institutions and societal challenges is published in, among others, the Academy of Management Annals, Academy of Management Journal, Organizations Studies, Journal of Business Venturing, and Socio-Economic Review.
Bjoern C. Mitzinneck, University of Groningen, Netherlands. Bjoern is an Assistant Professor of Change Management and Sustainability at the University of Groningen. His research focuses on sustainability transitions in sectors of primary importance to human needs, such as food and energy. He examines novel organizing models facilitating such change processes and resistance to change pressures in existing organizations.
Anne-Claire Pache, ESSEC Business School, France. Anne-Claire is a Professor of social innovation at ESSEC Business School in France, holder of ESSEC’s Chair in Philanthrophy and Associate Dean for Strategy and Sustainability. Her research lies at the intersection of organizational theory and social innovation, with a particular emphasis on pluralistic environments, hybrid organizations, and scaling-up processes. She received her doctorate in organizational behavior from INSEAD.
Tommaso Ramus, Catolica Lisbon School of Business and Economics (CLSBE), Portugal. Tommaso is an Associate Professor and Fundação Amélia de Mello Faculty Fellow in Social Innovation at CLSBE. He adopts an inductive, qualitative approach to investigate how hybrid organizations transform the challenges they face in opportunities for learning, change and (social) innovation. His work has appeared in the Academy of Management Journal, Organization Studies, Business Ethics Quarterly, and Journal of Business Ethics.
Nikolas Rathert, Tilburg University, Netherlands. Nikolas is an Assistant Professor for Organization Studies at Tilburg University. In his research, he studies how organizations integrate social goals and how these organizing efforts differ across institutional contexts. His research is published in, among others, the Journal of International Business Studies, Socio-Economic Review, and Research in the Sociology of Organizations.
Trish Reay, University of Alberta School of Business, Canada. Trish is a Professor and Associate Dean, PhD Program & Research at the University of Alberta School of Business. She holds the TELUS Chair in Management. Her research focuses on institutional and organizational change with attention to professional identity. She has studied these topics in healthcare and family business empirical settings.
Michael Smets, University of Oxford, United Kingdom. Michael is a Professor of Management at Saïd Business School. His research focuses on how organizations engage competing societal demands through hybrid organizing and paradoxical leadership. He studies these phenomena in professional service firms, financial institutions and public value organizations.
Wendy K. Smith, Lerner College of Business, University of Delaware, United States. Wendy is the Deutsch Family Professor of Management in the Lerner College of Business and Economics, University of Delaware and Research Fellow with the Centre for Social Innovation at the Judge School of Business, Cambridge University. Her research explores how leaders and their organizations manage strategic paradoxes, including tensions between exploration and exploitation, social mission and financial performance, and global integration and local demands. She has published her research in journals such as the Academy of Management Review, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Annals, Organization Science and Harvard Business Review. She received her PhD from Harvard Business School.
Patricia H. Thornton, Texas A&M University, United States. Patricia is Visiting Distinguished Professor, HEC Paris and Grand Challenge Initiative Faculty and Professor of Sociology and Entrepreneurship at Texas A&M University. Her research focuses on organization and management theory in particular on innovation and entrepreneurship and how institutions affect attention and strategy in the context of grand challenges. She received her PhD at Stanford University in 1993.
Antonino Vaccaro, IESE Business School, Spain. Antonino is a Professor at IESE Business School and the Academic Director of the Center for Business in Society. His area of specialization are hybrid organizations, social enterprises and social innovation. He has publications in leading scientific journals such as the Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Management Studies, Research Policy, etc.
Pietro Versari, Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University (RSM), Netherlands. Pietro is an Assistant Professor of Social Entrepreneurship in the Business-Society Management Department at the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University. His research focuses on business models for social enterprises, the collaboration between for profit and nonprofit sectors, and the management of hybrid organizations.
Tyler Wry, The Wharton School, United States. Tyler is an Associate Professor of Management at the Wharton school, University of Pennsylvania. His research seeks to understand how and when business can be a force for social good, as well as the challenges associated with this pursuit. He holds a PhD from the University of Alberta.
- Chapter 1: Heterogeneity in Organizational Hybridity: A Configurational, Situated, and Dynamic Approach
- Section A: Multiple Theoretical Lenses
- Chapter 2: Hybridity and Institutional Logics
- Chapter 3: Taking Hybridity for Granted: Institutionalization and Hybrid Identification
- Chapter 4: Reasoning with Heuristics: A New Approach to Categories Theory and the Evaluation of Hybrids
- Chapter 5: A Paradoxical Approach to Hybridity: Integrating Dynamic Equilibrium and Disequilibrium Perspectives
- Section B: Varied Empirical Contexts
- Chapter 6: Business Sustainability as a Context for Studying Hybridity
- Chapter 7: How the Zebra Got its Stripes: Individual Founder Imprinting and Hybrid Social Ventures
- Chapter 8: New Hybrid Forms and Their Liability of Novelty
- Chapter 9: Let’s Talk about Problems: Advancing Research on Hybrid Organizing, Social Enterprises, and Institutional Context
- Section C: Multilevel and Dynamic Approaches
- Chapter 10: Shift in Hybridity in Response to Environmental Complexity: The Transformation of the Italian Guardia di Finanza
- Chapter 11: Hybrid Agency: Sheltered Workshops (1941–2019)
- Chapter 12: Institutional Settlements and Organizational Hybridity: The Rise and Fall of Supervised Consumption Sites
- Chapter 13: Legitimacy Trade-Offs in Hybrid Fields: An Illustration Through Microfinance, Impact Investing and Social Entrepreneurship