Index

Non-State Violent Actors and Social Movement Organizations

ISBN: 978-1-78714-191-9, eISBN: 978-1-78714-190-2

ISSN: 0163-786X

Publication date: 18 April 2017

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2017), "Index", Non-State Violent Actors and Social Movement Organizations (Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change, Vol. 41), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 319-329. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0163-786X20170000041008

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2017 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Abortion
, 218

Abortion ban, protests against
, 211

Activism
, 212

Actor-based approaches
, xii

Aggressive counterprotesters
, 17

Al Ard affair
, 183–184

Al-Qaeda
, 75

Anbar Awakening
, 79

Anbar province

incumbent forces
, 80

insurgent forces
, 78–79

Anti-Catholic prejudice
, 13

Anti-censor
, 218

Anti-censorship protests
, 219

Anti-globalization movement
, 280

Anti-poverty movement
, 298

Anti-poverty sites overall
, 302

Anti-war
, 218

movements
, 249

protests
, 211

Apprentice Boys of Derry
, 24

ATCC. See La Asociación de Trabajadores Campesinos del Carare (ATCC)

AUC. See Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC)

Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC)
, xi

Authoritarianism
, 211

regimes, movement structures
, 138

Baathist Arabization campaign
, 78

Battle of Bogside
, 24

Black activism
, 247

Black Lives Matter movement
, 280

Boundary deactivation
, 208, 209, 222

Campaigns

election
, 151, 165, 196

women’s movement
, 162

Case law book women
, 254

Centralization
, 144

Chaldo-Assyrian communities
, 96

Civil disobedience
, 154

Civilian combat readiness
, 19

Civil rights
, 249

campaign
, 21

contention
, 16

marchers
, 4

organization
, 4

reformism
, 25

Civil rights movement (CRM)
, 5, 13, 17, 19, 21, 296

contentious activities
, 20

conventional activities
, 20

Classic economic theory
, 121

Clientelism
, 112

Coalitional approach
, 285

Coalitional moments
, 285

Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA)
, 78

Collective actors, influence on cultural change
, 245

Collective identity
, 144

ethnic
, 176, 197

gender
, 154, 249, 251

youth
, 288, 291

Communication barriers, within movement
, 143

Conflict zones
, 121

Contention, emergence of
, 140–141

Contentious politics
, 178

militant activists, effect of
, 23

Corruption
, 119, 123

Countermovement activity
, 38

emergence, factors behind
, 8

oppositional mobilization support
, 8

sympathetic public attention
, 8

values threatened
, 8

ethnic vote
, 43

movement supporters
, 39

Countermovement studies
, 35–36

countermovement-movement interactions, role of
, 36

framing processes, role of
, 35

historical material, role of
, 35

mobilizing structures, role of
, 35

movement dynamics, role of
, 35

newspaper accounts, role of
, 35

political opportunities, role of
, 35

Count model technique
, 114

CPA. See Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA)

Critical community tactics
, 245

and cultural products
, 250

CRM. See Civil rights movement (CRM)

Cultural change
, 244

Death squads
, xi

Decentralization, political
, 183, 185, 191

Decision-making processes
, 207, 248

Deinstitutionalization, movement
, 175, 180, 182, 188–196

Democracy
, 207

Democracy deficit
, 119

Demonstrations
, 154

Derry Housing Action Committee
, 6

Differential recruitment
, 285

Disability diversity
, 269

Domestic terrorism
, 108, 116, 122

economic development, effect on
, 121

terror attacks
, 113–115, 122, 123

zero-inflated negative binomial regression analysis of
, 124

Economic indicator
, 121

Educational programs
, 246

Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN)
, xi

ELN. See Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN)

Environmentalists
, 227

protests
, 219

Environmental racism
, 287

Erratic mobilization
, 175

Erratic protest
, 194

Escalation, movement
, 194

Ethnic conflicts
, 174

Ethnic contention
, 176, 196

Ethnic democracy
, 175

Ethnic dominance
, 54

Ethnic identity
, 176, 197

Ethnic mobilization
, 174, 179

contentious politics, effect on
, 179

strategic theories of
, 197

theories of
, 176

Ethnic movements
, 179, 198

Ethnocracy
, 184

Ethno-nationalism
, 195

contention
, 175

deinstitutionalization
, 182, 188–196

of Palestinian citizens
, 182, 196–198

mobilization
, 175, 179

contentious politics and dynamics of
, 178–182

European Union
, 209

Fallujah and Tal Afar
, 95–97

insurgent caused civilian fatalities
, 96, 97

Family Protection Law, Iran
, 140

FARC. See Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC)

Fascist organization, Northern Ireland
, 14

Female law faculty
, 244

Feminisms
, 269

Feminist community
, 252

Feminist legal

activists
, 243

cultural products
, 253

articles in law reviews
, 254, 267

conferences
, 254, 262

law journal websites
, 255, 264, 268

legal books
, 254, 266

women and law courses
, 254

women’s law student organizations
, 253

data and methods
, 253–255

in institutional culture
, 245

mobilization in
, 244

within law schools
, 257

Feminist movement
, 287

Flash protests
, 154

Frame extension
, 286

Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC)
, xi

Gender equality
, 154, 249, 251

Gezi protest
, xvi, 205, 213

Global Terrorism Database (GTD)
, 114

Goodwin’s theory of categorical terrorism
, 74

Grassroots-based movement
, 152

Green movement
, 221

GTD. See Global Terrorism Database (GTD)

HDI. See Human Development Index (HDI)

Higher education
, 246

Hizbi-Kontra
, 47

Hizbullah
, 42–43

assassinations
, 45

countermovement killings
, 46

crimes against
, 40

impact of
, 34

and Islam
, 42

political identity
, 40

political killings
, 43

recruitment
, 42

Turkish civil war, role in
, 42

Turkish government, role of
, 40

violence
, 34

Human Development Index (HDI)
, 121

Human Rights Association
, 47

Hussein, Saddam
, 79

IBC. See Iraq Body Count (IBC)

IDEA. See Integrated Data for Events Analysis (IDEA)

Identity

alignment
, 286

amplification
, 287

bridging
, 281, 285

extension
, 287

transformation
, 287

Iftars
, 214

Incarceration
, 208

Indiscriminate violence
, 83

insurgent indiscriminate attacks, descriptive statistics
, 90

Institutionalization, movement
, 180, 198

coalition formation
, 181

movement
, 181

typology
, 180

See also Deinstitutionalization, movement

Integrated Data for Events Analysis (IDEA)
, 122

Intellectual struggle
, 251

Intersectionality
, 280

and coalitional work
, 282

and implied identities
, 298

and movements
, 294

SMOs
, 296

and SMO-affiliated websites
, 293

Intersectional recruitment
, 290

Intra-group solidarity
, 39

IRA. See Irish Republican Army (IRA)

Iranian movements
, 139

Iraq

American forces, role of
, 75

Arabization policies
, 77

armed conflict
, 71

Baathist period of governance
, 77

Baath party
, 79

contention, micro-level dynamics
, 71–74

conflict, relational approaches to
, 71–74

security concerns
, 71–74

territory, control of
, 71–74

ethnic cleavage
, 71

ethnic defection
, 71

ethnic enclave communities

Chaldo-Assyrian Christians
, 70

Turkmens
, 70

Yazidis
, 70

ethnic enclaves definition
, 84

ethnic war
, 71

Fallujah
, 84, 93

Hussein, Saddam
, 70, 79

Ninewa province

attacks against civilians, severity of
, 92

Chaldo-Assyrians
, 77

districts and enclave communities
, 76

incumbent forces
, 80

indiscriminate violence
, 90

insurgent attacks
, 93

insurgent forces
, 78–79

Turkmen
, 77–78

Yazidis
, 75–77

non-state violent actors
, xiv

political rivalries
, 73

protection rackets
, 73

suicide bombings
, 82

Tal Afar
, 84

tribal leaders
, 79

violence against civilians, patterns of
, 72, 74

war

bombing acts
, 86

civilian fatalities

vs. combatant
, 85

reported by IBC
, 88

ethnic enclaves definition
, 84

vs. other civil wars
, 82

See also Anbar province

Iraq Body Count (IBC)
, 71

Iraqi civilians
, 82

Iraqi enclave communities
, 70

Iraqi morgues
, 81

Iraqi national army
, 80

Ireland

partition
, 6

protestant and Irish-Catholic crowds, sectarian clashes
, 19

Irish-Catholic minority
, 6

Irish Republican Army (IRA)
, 7, 21

Islamic activists, Iran
, 152

Justice and Development Party
, 209

KDP. See Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP)

Kemalists
, 225

Kurdish autonomous region
, 74

Kurdish-backed political groups
, 74

Kurdish community

ethnic victimization
, 40

repression against
, 40

Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP)
, 76

Kurdish-Islamic group
, 40

Kurdish loyalties
, 34

political actors, impact of
, 34

Kurdish movement

detentions
, 41

ethnic celebrations
, 41

ethnic entrepreneurs, role of
, 41

ethnic party
, 40

movement party, as
, 40

Hizbullah, impact of
, 34

Hizbullah crimes against
, 40

political identity
, 40

Kurdish nationalism
, 34

Kurdish political party
, xiii

Kurdish regional militia (Peshmerga)
, 80

Kurds
, 34, 225

La Asociación de Trabajadores Campesinos del Carare (ATCC)
, xi

Labor movements
, 157

Ladies Day
, 257

Land Day
, 184–188, 194

Law. See Legal feminists

Law degrees received by women
, 1960–1999, 256

Law schools
, 244

culture, legal education
, 244, 253

women’s enrollment in
, 244

culture, prior to feminist mobilizing
, 255–269

Legal feminists
, 249, 252

See also Feminist legal activists

Legal scholarship
, 251

LGBT activists
, 247

LGBTQ movement
, 298

LGBTTQ community
, 205

Liberalism
, 156

Liberal organizations
, 156

Loyalist countermobilization
, 24

Loyalists
, 12, 17

Marginalization
, 6, 77, 178, 185, 190, 280, 282, 283, 300

Mass movement
, 205, 215

Mass protests
, 207

Micromobilization processes
, 37, 280

Minority rights
, 190

Mobilization
, 207, 244

micromobilization processes
, 37

strategies
, 174, 198

Movement

behavior
, 142

Civil Rights Movement (CRM)
, 5, 21

ethnic
, 35, 42, 48, 49

fractionalization
, 120, 187

Gezi movement
, 212, 213–215

initial movement strength
, 34–38, 46

Iranian student movements
, 138

Iranian women’s movements
, 138

Kurdish movement
, 34, 40–41, 211

movement–countermovement interactions
, 5, 7, 8, 9, 17, 19, 24–25, 26, 55, 56

networks
, 143

cliques
, 143, 144, 160, 164

polycephalous
, 143, 144

wheels
, 143, 144

noncentralized organizations
, 142, 164

Palestinian-Israeli movement
, 196

participants, ideological differences
, 143

polycentric
, 138, 145, 164

reticulated
, 138, 143, 144, 148

degree of
, 148

reticulated structure
, 138

Roma movement
, 197

segmented
, 138, 142

social movement organizations (SMOs)
, 142, 280

student movement activities
, 155–156, 177, 180

Tamil movement
, 197

women’s movement
, 160–164, 166

Narcoterrorism
, 115

Natural resources

and conflict
, 110–113

Network structure
, 143, 144, 146, 147, 150, 163, 166

social movements and
, 144

NICRA. See Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA)

Non-state actors (NSAs)
, xi, xii

challengers and change
, xvi–xvii

influence/adaptation in conflict environments
, xii–xvi

violent/nonviolent
, xvii

Non-state violent actors (NSVAs)
, xi

Nonviolent principles and practices
, 17

Northern Ireland

Cameron report
, 13

civil rights

and loyalist activities
, 18

countermobilization
, 7–10, 12–19

ethnonational identities
, 4, 22

inter-community relationships
, 13

intra-movement competition
, 22

Long March
, 4

loyalists
, 5, 8, 16

mobilized dissent and countermobilization
, xiii

nonviolent contention
, 15

political violence
, 5, 7–10

Protestant dominance
, 22

Protestant-Unionist community
, 12

public order
, 14

tactical opportunity
, 22

The Troubles
, 4

violent conflict
, 5

Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA)
, 6

Northern Ireland Parliament
, 20

NSAs. See Non-state actors (NSAs)

Object shift
, 5, 9, 10, 12, 19–20, 23, 25, 26

mechanism
, 9

mobilization, role in
, 9

tactical codependency, role in
, 9–10

Oil

curse
, 108

export revenue
, 111

extraction process
, 108, 111

industry

conflict, association between
, 108

domestic terrorism and
, 108, 114, 116, 122

funding
, 108

privatization
, 109

public-private joint ventures
, 109

ownership
, 109, 118

prices
, 109

production
, 110, 116

civil war, relation between
, 110

rents
, 108, 116–119, 122, 123

domestic terrorism and
, 113, 122

economy, effect on
, 116

state ownership of
, 117

reserves
, 109

revenue
, 108, 110

ownership structure, classification based on
, 109

states, democracy and economic growth
, 112

Palestinian collective
, 183

Palestinian Israeli

citizens, civic rights
, 184

collective
, 175

ethno-national identity
, 178, 191

mobilization
, 175, 178, 182, 187

Palestinian mobilization
, 184

PANDA database. See Protocol for Analysis of Nonviolent Direct Action (PANDA) database

Paramilitary
, 4, 5, 7, 24, 156

Party organization, Kurdish
, 62

PC-ACE. See Program for Computer-Assisted Coding of Events (PC-ACE)

Peaceful protest
, 222

Peace movement
, 283

Peace negotiations
, 211

Pedestrianization Project
, 228

People’s Democracy
, 4

Peshmerga
, 80

Police

brutality
, 17

violence
, 216

Polish regime
, 142

Political

activism
, 219

differences
, 214

fragmentation
, 209

mobilization
, 175

opportunity
, 119

polarization
, 210

prisoners
, 211

process theory
, 35

rights, 7-point indices of
, 119

socialization
, 288

stability
, 209

violence
, 19

Political opportunity structure (POS)
, 182, 184

of Israel’s composite regime
, 182

Political Terror Scale
, 120

Polycentric movement
, 143

Polycentric structure
, 138

POS. See Political opportunity structure (POS)

Pregnancy discrimination
, 251

Price shocks
, 111

Program for Computer-Assisted Coding of Events (PC-ACE)
, 11

PRONI. See Public Record Office of Northern Ireland (PRONI)

Protest
, 52, 53, 62, 63, 66

August marching season
, 24

behavior
, 37

British crown
, 6

challenge to Protestant-unionist hegemony
, 14

civil rights
, 20

cultural perspectives
, 207

demobilization of protesters
, 18

emotions and experiences
, 208, 222

ethnic party, in TBMM
, 41

events

analysis
, 11

violent state repression in
, 217

Gezi protests
, 206, 209, 210, 212, 213, 220, 223, 229

by government officials and loyalists
, 7

Green Movement
, 167

interactions
, 15

conflict
, 15

marched
, 15

rally
, 15

Irish-Catholic crowds
, 19

Israeli security force operations
, 189

job insecurity and subcontractor regulations
, 211

Ladies Day
, 258

Land Day
, 186

loyalist movement
, 16

nonviolent protest activities
, 154

Palestinian land

Israel
, 185

Poland
, 142

Protest Event Analysis
, 11

scale shift
, 220

songs
, 247

street
, 41

Protestant nature of Northern Ireland
, 13, 22

Republican rallies and May 1 protest
, 217

Protestant
, 5, 16, 19

unionist hegemony
, 14

Protocol for Analysis of Nonviolent Direct Action (PANDA) database
, 122

Public demonstrations
, 247

Public meetings
, 223

Public Order Act
, 18

Public order disruptions
, 21

Public Record Office of Northern Ireland (PRONI)
, 12

30 years rule
, 12

QNA. See Quantitative narrative analysis (QNA)

Quantitative narrative analysis (QNA)
, 5, 11

Racial justice
, 280

Radical contention
, 9

Radical Islamic group
, 34

Radicalization mechanism
, 19–24, 179

object shift
, 19–21

tactical codependency
, 21–24

Rebel funding
, 110

Repression
, 7, 9, 141, 205, 208

non-state actors
, 7

state actors
, 7

Republicanism
, 210

Republican People’s Party
, 210

Republican rallies, Turkish
, 219

Resource abundance
, 110, 116

civil violence, contributing factor
, 110

Resource revenue
, 111

Resource wealth

maldistribution of
, 111

Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)
, 6, 14, 17, 21

RUC. See Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)

Scale shift
, 208

Secularism
, 218

Selective violence
, 83

Serial autocorrelation
, 114

Sex discrimination
, 256

in employment
, 251

in law
, 251

Sexual harassment
, 225, 251

SHP. See Social Democratic People’s Party (SHP)

SMO. See Social movement organizations (SMO)

Social Democratic People’s Party (SHP)
, 44

Social equality
, 6

Social justice
, 281

Social media
, 228

Social movement
, 35, 144, 174, 176–178, 177, 205, 244, 250–252, 280, 288

activism
, 248

actors
, 143

collective identity formation in
, 252

cultural perspectives
, 207

ethnic movements
, 177

to mobilize resources
, 21

organizations and structure
, 142–144

in politics
, 7, 35, 304

recruitment
, 280, 283–284

theories
, 55

threat
, 55

Social movement organizations (SMO)
, xvii, 142, 280

data
, 289–292

and intersectionality
, 281–283, 284–287

role of
, 142

and structure
, 142–144

Social networks
, 281

Soft repression
, 257

Solidarity
, 207, 209, 226

Spirit of Gezi
, 214, 226

Street demonstrations
, 18

Student movement, Iranian
, 139, 145, 155, 159

authority
, 151, 158

network
, xv, 150

reticulation
, 149, 156

segmentation
, 149, 156

structure
, 145

Student organizations, United States
, 258

Sunni Arabs
, 74

Tactical adaptation
, 10

Tactical codependency
, 5

Taksim Pedestrianization Project
, 213

Terrorism
, 100

categorical
, 71, 74, 80, 81

domestic
, 108, 112, 116, 121–122

economic development, effect on
, 121

terror attacks
, 113–115, 122, 123

zero-inflated negative binomial regression analysis of
, 124

Global Terrorism Database (GTD)
, 114

narcoterrorism
, 115

TIHV. See Turkey Human Rights Association (TIHV)

Transgressive contention
, 175, 179, 189, 196

Turkey

civil war
, 39

countermovement consolidation
, 53

countermovement killings
, 46, 47, 51

countermovement studies
, 35–36

countermovement victims
, 47

1991 election
, 42

elections
, 42

electoral preferences
, 52

ethnic dominance
, 49

initial movement strength
, 46

insurgent attacks
, 52

intra-Kurdish rivalry
, 40

Islamic order
, 40

Islamist vote
, 48

Kurdish movement
, 40–41

Hizbullah as countermovement
, 42–43

Kurdistan Workers’ Party
, 39

movement-countermovement interaction

disaggregation
, 45–46

elections
, 42

ethnic vote
, 43–45

movement killing
, 49–52

movement support, dynamics of
, 52–55

Movement Party
, 51, 53

1994 municipal election
, 44

Nevrouz celebrations
, 42

political participation
, 49

state of emergency (OHAL region)
, 41

street mobilizations
, 42

unemployment
, 54

Welfare Party (RP)
, 48

Turkey Human Rights Association (TIHV)
, 47

Turkish Grand National Assembly
, 41

Turkish migration
, 78

Turkmen
, 77–78

community division
, 78

Violence
, 208

Violent contention
, 9

Vuong tests
, 114

WDMIP. See World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples (WDMIP)

“Women and the law” courses
, 259–261

Women’s activism, Iran
, 162

Women’s equality
, 140

Women’s law association
, 254

student organizations
, 1960–1999, 259

Women’s movement, Iran
, 141, 145, 152, 153, 159, 160, 163

authority
, 154, 164

campaigns
, 162

internet in
, 162

network analysis of
, 145

network structure of
, 163

Wooldridge test
, 114

World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples (WDMIP)
, 74

Yazidis
, 75–76

Zoroastrianism
, 76