In the time of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, the effective leadership is what all the organisations are now requiring. Retaining and satisfying the employees in these tough times has become very difficult. In view of this, the present study attempts to investigate three objectives; first, to find out the direct effect of effective leadership on job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB); second, to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and OCB; and, third, to investigate whether effective leadership positively moderate and mediate the link between job satisfaction and OCB among managerial employees of private manufacturing firms of Chhattisgarh state.
Correlational research design was applied in the present study. Cluster sampling was used to finalise sample region, and simple random technique was applied to collect primary responses. Employees working at the managerial positions were chosen as participants in the present study. About 530 questionnaires were sent to the participants in which 400 responses were found useable for analysis.
The results explained a significant relation of effective leadership with job satisfaction and OCB. In addition, job satisfaction also revealed a positive correlation with OCB. The moderating and mediating effect of effective leadership in the link between job satisfaction and OCB was also noted in significant association.
Private sector enterprises were economically harmed by COVID-19's sudden arrival. This forced corporations to minimise expenses by cutting staff, production and operations. Employees felt alone, needed assistance and guidance. This research demonstrates how effective leadership may reconnect workers and boost organisational performance.
Dubey, P., Pathak, A.K. and Sahu, K.K. (2023), "Assessing the influence of effective leadership on job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour", Rajagiri Management Journal, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/RAMJ-07-2022-0108
Emerald Publishing Limited
Copyright © 2022, Pushkar Dubey, Abhishek Kumar Pathak and Kailash Kumar Sahu
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The fast changing technologically driven environment of the twenty-first century necessitates the development of fresh insights into leadership and leadership potential. The world has transitioned to an age in which leadership is seen as an organisational skill rather than an individual attribute possessed by a small number of persons at the top of an organisation (Hanjunkar, 2019). Regardless of the size or structure of the company, effective leaders aim to maximise the performance of their subordinates in order to accomplish organisational objectives. Effective leadership is characterised in terms of motivating an organisation's personnel to achieve its objectives (Yukl, 1998). In the conventional bureaucratic organisations, only the most powerful people could be considered as leaders. Organisations must concentrate on extending their leadership talent pool rather than limiting their leadership development initiatives to a small number of people who have the potential to become senior corporate officers.
An effective leader strongly impacts the job satisfaction (Ogbonna and Harris, 2000; Podsakoff et al., 2000; Edú Valsania et al., 2012; Muhdar and Rahma, 2015; Sani et al., 2018) and can create organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) (Rodrigues and Ferreira, 2015; Sarwar et al., 2015; Ismaeelzadeh et al., 2016; Saif et al., 2016; Cofie, 2018; Hassi, 2018) among employees, which ultimately results in improved organisational performance and long-term growth. When a person leads, they motivate people to achieve a goal while also directing the organisation in a manner that makes it more ordered and logically significant. Many individuals believe that leadership is something that only the official leader can do. Leadership, on the other hand, may be defined as any action taken by any group member that contributes to the group's overall effectiveness. Human and social interactions, as well as the process of influencing others to fulfil the organisation's objectives, are all part of the leadership job.
Although there are no universal traits of great leaders, there are some requirements for leadership in different contexts. Successful leadership is more about function than personality. Stogdill (1974) makes an excellent point: “Effective, as opposed to ineffective, leaders regard themselves as letting subordinates know what is expected of them, notifying them of policy changes, explaining reasons for choices, and gathering group opinions before implementing a new plan.” He added that “the most successful leaders tend to demonstrate a higher degree of adaptability and flexibility, which allow them to adjust their behaviour to the shifting and contradicting demands placed on them.” According to Cheung and Wong (2011), when effective leadership is present, subordinates are motivated to go above and beyond their own skills in order to provide improved ways of performing their responsibilities and addressing issues. In addition, Givens (2008) highlighted that employee behaviour can be influenced by the leadership effectiveness. Thus, in relation to this, the present study attempts to investigate three research objectives; first, to examine the direct influence of effective leadership on job satisfaction and OCB; second, to assess the impact of job satisfaction on OCB; and finally, to test the moderating and mediating effect of effective leadership in the link between job satisfaction and OCB among managerial employees of selected private manufacturing firms of Chhattisgarh state.
2. Literature review
2.1 Effective leadership and job satisfaction
Leaders' communication has a big influence on employees' performance, job satisfaction and attitude. Leaders affect not just employees' emotional and mental states, but they also have a significant impact on employees' intrinsically motivated behaviours towards the achievement of the organisation's goals (Burns, 2007). The term “job satisfaction” refers to the pleasant mental and emotional state that arises when an individual values their career and their work (Locke, 1983). Robbins (1998) defines job satisfaction as “the sum of an employee's positive feelings about his or her employment and workplace.” It also includes the pleasure that workers get from their jobs and working lives (Basaran, 2000). Employees are driven by effective leadership because an effective leader understands their feelings, personal ambitions and aspirations, and he/she individually addresses, advises and directs them in the right direction. The research of Kennerly (1989) found a link between job satisfaction, leadership behaviours and organisational performance. Research showed that effective leadership boosts employees' productivity and job satisfaction by improving their motivation (Goleman, 2002; Locke and Latham, 1990; Petty et al., 1984; Kouzes and Posner, 2002). Some studies predicted a strong link between effective leadership and work satisfaction (Podsakoff et al., 1990, 1996; Walumbwa, 2002; Chen, 2005a, 2005b; Madlock, 2008; Parkinson, 2008; Temple, 2009; Edú Valsania et al., 2012; Tonkin, 2013; Muhdar and Rahma, 2015; Sani et al., 2018). Thus, the present study proposes the following hypothesis:
Effective leadership would emerge as a positive predictor of job satisfaction.
2.2 Effective leadership and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB)
Citizenship behaviours are not usually included in job descriptions like other task-related duties. The presence of OCB improves efficiency (Podsakoff et al., 2000) and the social-psychological work environment (Borman and Motowidlo, 1993). Prior studies state that effective leadership emerges as a significant predictor of OCB (Walumbwa, 2002; Rothfelder et al., 2013; Iman and Lestari, 2019). Leadership behaviour encourages subordinates to create performance above and beyond which surpasses the minimal level requirement at the organisation (Podsakoff et al., 1982). Kaihatu and Wahju (2007) studied whether effective leadership affects the behaviour of OCB workers, and found a positive connection.
Leadership is not only a matter of issuing orders and expecting others to follow them. It consists on inspiring and influencing people to fulfil the aims of an organisation to the best of their abilities (Singh and Sharma, 2005). Choudhary et al. (2016) looked at the impact of effective leadership on the OCB. A total of 142 education experts from China, India and Australia were included as participants. There was a strong correlation among effective leaders and OCB in China and Australia, but partially in India. Empirical research has also shown that effective leadership has a favourable impact on outcomes including group cohesiveness, employee effort and morale, psychological health and productivity by enhancing followers' sense of the value of their work. This kind of persuasion reflects the advice of Smircich and Morgan (1982), who contend that effective leaders provide employees a context for their acts so that those employees may “use the meaning so produced as a point of reference for their own activity”. There have been previous studies explaining the significant and positive impact between effective leadership and OCB (Challagalla and Shervani, 1996; Walumbwa, 2002; Derzsy, 2003; Chen, 2005a, 2005b; Shibru and Darshan, 2011; Mihalcea, 2013; Rothfelder et al., 2013; Shahab and Nisa, 2014; Palupi et al., 2017; Iman and Lestari, 2019). Thus, the present study proposes the following hypothesis:
Effective leadership would emerge as a positive predictor of OCB.
2.3 Job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour
Job satisfaction or dissatisfaction is influenced by the relationship that exists between a person's job expectations and his or her actual accomplishments in the workplace (Armstrong, 2003). While OCB is the desire to go to the additional mile in order to fulfil the organisation's objective (Organ, 1988), it is the evidence of behaviour that one voluntarily chooses to participate in activities that enhances the successful running of an organisation that is not necessarily recognised by the formal incentive system that is referred to as OCB (Odek, 2018). Baron et al. (2006) states that, if workers are happy in their jobs, they are more likely to engage in “discretionary” forms of “organisational citizenship behaviour,” suggesting that job satisfaction aids in their as well as organisational productivity (Kossen, 1996; Skaalvik and Skaalvik, 2017). George and Bettenhausen (1990) also stated that one's readiness to assist others is also impacted by one's enjoyment at work.
With these benefits to the overall functioning of the organisation, OCB has become a hot topic of debate among researchers and managers alike (Podsakoff et al., 2009). OCB is not a formal requirement, it is not regarded an offence or penalised by law if an employee does not demonstrate such behaviour (Bergeron, 2007). Organisations often strive to create a work climate where workers are eager to engage in activities and tasks that are outside of their official job descriptions and feel strongly engaged (Naqshbandi and Kaur, 2014; Randhawa and Kaur, 2015).
Evidently, the impact of work satisfaction on OCB has not been thoroughly investigated (Nguni et al., 2007). However, there are few studies conducted which revealed that job satisfaction is a strong predictor of employees' OCB (Levin and Isen, 1975; Bateman and Organ, 1983; Smith et al., 1983; Puffer, 1987; Organ and Konovsky, 1989; Witt, 1991; Schnake, 1991; Murphy et al., 2002; Miao, 2011; Bowling et al., 2012; Mehboob and Bhutto, 2012; Pavalache-Ilie, 2013; Andrade et al., 2016; Günay, 2018; Fitrio et al., 2019; Cek and Eyupoglu, 2020). Thus, the present study proposes the following hypotheses:
Job satisfaction would emerge as a positive predictor of OCB.
2.4 Effective leadership, job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour
More and more studies have focused on the effectiveness of leadership and how it affects a variety of outcomes during the last decade. Effective leadership has a big impact on how employees behave in terms of organisational citizenship responsibility (Rodrigues and Ferreira, 2015; Sarwar et al., 2015; Ismaeelzadeh et al., 2016; Saif et al., 2016; Cofie, 2018; Hassi, 2018) and demonstrate job satisfaction (Ogbonna and Harris, 2000; Podsakoff et al., 2000; Edú Valsania et al., 2012; Muhdar and Rahma, 2015; Sani et al., 2018). Employees often go above and beyond their job descriptions when they work under effective leadership (OCB, 2018).
Moreover, the most effective way for a company to enhance employee satisfaction is via improved individual leadership. It is no secret that leaders who perceive their job as one of developing others will have high-performing teams (Leimbach, 2021). Workers' satisfaction, the commitment of the organisation and the fairness of the organisation's policies are all factors that influence and affect citizenship behaviour within an organisation (Bateman and Organ, 1983; Organ, 1983, 1990, 1997; Organ and Lingl, 1995. Organ and Moorman, 1993; Penner et al., 1997; Tang and Ibrahim, 1998).
While OCB is not explicitly included in job descriptions, it is highly valued when applied by workers since it increases the organisation's efficiency and long-term viability (Katz in Purba and Seniati, 2004). Additionally, OCB highlights workers that are helpful, cooperative, compassionate and diligent (Organ, 2005). Because of its favourable impact on workers' performance, OCB has attracted the attention of practitioners and academics alike (Podsakoff and Mackenzie, 1997; Becton et al., 2017). In addition, Lin and Hsiao (2014) suggest that strong leaders displayed trust by their subordinates, which generates opportunity for them to have a big influence on their job, which might result in greater levels of OCB. Previous studies provide few evidences on the significant relationship between job satisfaction and OCB, but what happens when effective leadership is introduced as mediator/moderator has been very limitedly explored. Thus, the present study proposes the following hypotheses:
Effective leadership would emerge as a significant mediator in the job satisfaction and OCB relationships.
Effective leadership would emerge as a significant moderator in the job satisfaction and OCB relationships.
3.1 Conceptual models of the present study
Figure 1 depicting the conceptual model of effect of effective leadership on job satisfaction and OCB. Similarly, in Figure 2, the model of relationship of job satisfaction on OCB is proposed to find out. At last, Figure 3 shows the model of moderating and mediating effect in the link between job satisfaction and OCB.
3.2 Sampling region
Chhattisgarh was chosen as a sampling region for the study as the state, since its inception dated 1st November 2000, has been continuously growing. Its gross state domestic product (GSDP) is estimated at Rs. 4.38 trillion ($ 57.34 billion) in 2022–2023. The state's GSDP grew at 9.98% between 2015–2016 and 2022–2023 (IBEF, 2022). Mineral-related industries rely on Chhattisgarh's rich mineral resources. Nearly 80% of State industrial units are in the mining sector. Manufacturing, mining and quarrying produced 44.34% growth in 2005–2006. Construction and manufacturing subsectors, fuelled by infrastructural development in the State, expanded 39.44% in 2013–2014. State development and investment have always been driven by the core industry. Ambuja, Birla, Essar, Jindal, J K Lakshmi, Lafarge, L&T, NMDC and Vedanta are major industrial companies in the state. Steel & allied, cement, power, aluminium, mining, IT/ITeS, defence, food processing and electronics have attracted investment in the state (Govt. of Chhattisgarh Official Website, 2022).
3.3 Sampling and data collection
Using cluster analysis, the researcher finalises four districts, i.e. Raipur, Durg, Raigarh and Korba for the present study because these districts consist the greatest number of private manufacturing firms in Chhattisgarh state. Thereafter, using simple random sampling, nine private manufacturing firms were chosen and received 400 useable responses for analysis out of the distributed 530 questionnaires. Employees working at managerial positions were chosen as a sample for the present study. The data were collected during October 2019 to March 2020.
3.4 Research instrument
Adoption of right instrument is the prime necessity for the collection of right data for the study. The present study followed the scientific process of selection, development and validation of the scale. First, authors thoroughly studied the previous literature and found validated scale of previous studies. The authors adapted three constructs with certain modification as per the research objectives. Secondly, the adapted/modified constructs were sent to four subject experts for examining the content validity and to gain valuable insights. Experts confirmed the content validity with minor changes. Finally, the authors conducted a pilot study with 50 respondents to check the content creation, in which no modifications were asked by the participants in the final questionnaire. Hence, a final 32-item questionnaire was ready for collecting the primary data as shown in Table 1.
3.5 Reliability and validity measures
Confirmatory factors analysis (CFA) was performed for analysing reliability and validity of the collected data. In Table 2, Cronbach's alpha and Rho A values were found to be greater than 0.7 (Nunnally, 1978; Sternberg, 2004) for all the constructs taken in the present study, which explains the constructs' reliability measures. Similarly, convergent validity was noted greater than 0.7 (Hair et al., 2010; Bagozzi and Yi, 1988) and average variance extracted (AVE) was found greater than 0.5 (Henseler et al., 2009) for all the constructs. In Table 3, discriminant validity which helps to identify that whether all the constructs taken in the study are independent from each other. The values explained more than 0.5 for each construct, thus it can be derived that the present study has a satisfactory measurement model.
4. Analysis and interpretation
To determine whether effective leadership as an independent variable affects the dependent variables, i.e. job satisfaction and OCB, path analysis was carried out as shown in Table 4.
4.1 Effect of leadership on job satisfaction (testing of H1)
As per the analysis acquired in Table 4, leadership was found to be having a positive and significant correlation with job satisfaction (β = 0.76, R2 = 0.765, p < 0.001). Hence, it concludes that leadership emerged as a strong predictor of job satisfaction among employees.
4.2 Effect of leadership on organisational citizenship behaviour (testing of H2)
According to the analysis explained in Table 4, leadership was found to be having a significant connection with organisational citizenship behaviour (β = 0.887, R2 = 0.357, p < 0.001). Hence, it concludes that leadership emerged as a strong predictor of OCB among employees.
4.3 Effect of job satisfaction on organisational citizenship behaviour (testing of H3)
As per the analysis explained in Table 4, job satisfaction was evidenced to be having a strong correlation with OCB (β = 0.774, R2 = 0.369, p < 0.001). Hence, it concludes that job satisfaction emerged as a positive and significant contributor to employees' OCB.
4.4 Mediating effect of effective leadership (testing of H4)
Regression analysis was applied to test the mediating effect of effective leadership in the link between job satisfaction and OCB in which Table 5 explains the direct effect of job satisfaction on effective leadership correlated significantly (JS→ELS) (β = 0.448, t = 10.015, p < 0.001). Job satisfaction is also significantly and positively connected with OCB (JS→OCB) (β = 0.171, t = 4.860, p < 0.001). In addition, effective leadership is found to be significantly associated with OCB (ELS→OCB) (β = 0.687, t = 19.526, p < 0.001). Thus, the direct and positive relations between variables such as job satisfaction, effective leadership and OCB explains a significant relationship with each other, hence, it evidenced to be a case of partial mediation. Table 5 also explains the indirect effect of job satisfaction on OCB through effective leadership associated significantly and positively (JS→ELS→OSB) (β = 0.308, p < 0.001) with total effect (β = 0.479, p < 0.001). Hence, it can be concluded that the effective leadership is found to be partially mediate (0.308) the link between job satisfaction and OCB among managerial employees.
4.5 Moderating effect of effective leadership (testing of H5)
Table 6 explains the moderation (interaction) effect of effective leadership between job satisfaction and OCB. It can be observed that these variables accounted for a significant amount of variance in employees' OCB (R2 = 0.6282, p < 0.001). Further, the moderation effect of effective leadership added significant and positive, but small amount of variance (▲R2 = 0.0224, p < 0.001) between job satisfaction and OCB (β = 0.0195, t = 4.8861, p < 0.001). Thus, effective leadership found to be moderated (0.0195) between job satisfaction and OCB among employees.
5. Discussion and implications
The present study contributes to the theory and practice in the management field. Effective leadership is what all organisations require, especially in the age of COVID-19 pandemic where employees seek advice, guidance and help. Employees are considered the asset of the organisation as because they are the key to the growth and development of any organisation. But it is an undeniable fact that due to COVID-19, employees have suffered a lot, financially, mentally as well as physically. Now, it has become a big challenge to how to engage employees to certain work with high morale and enthusiasm, in which effective leadership can be an only solution to connect employees to the organisation again. The present study identified the significance of effective leadership in the organisation and conducted study to investigate the direct, mediating, and moderating effect of effective leadership on job satisfaction and OCB (Table 7).
The results of the first hypothesis test revealed that leadership did emerge as a strong and significant predictor of job satisfaction among managerial employees at selected private manufacturing firms of Chhattisgarh state, and the hypothesis is accepted. Similar results were carried out by previous researchers (Podsakoff et al., 1990, 1996, 2000; Ogbonna and Harris, 2000; Edú Valsania et al., 2012; Tonkin, 2013; Muhdar and Rahma, 2015; Sani et al., 2018). Thus, it can be derived that managerial employees' satisfaction level can be enhanced when the leadership improves at the workplace. In other words, a continuous improvement of leadership in the workplace creates greater job satisfaction among managerial employees.
The outcomes of the second hypothesis test indicated that leadership did evidence as a positive and significant predictor of OCB among managerial employees at selected private manufacturing firms of Chhattisgarh state, and the hypothesis is accepted. Previous researchers evidenced similar results (Challagalla and Shervani, 1996; Walumbwa, 2002; Derzsy, 2003; Chen, 2005a, b; Shibru and Darshan, 2011; Mihalcea, 2013; Rothfelder et al., 2013; Shahab and Nisa, 2014; Palupi et al., 2017; Iman and Lestari, 2019). Thus, it can be said that managerial employees' OCB can be created and enhanced if the leadership continues to improve at the workplace. In other words, the continuous improvement at the leadership level directly and positively creates the extra role behaviour among managerial employees.
The results of the third hypothesis test indicated that job satisfaction did evidence to be a significant and positive predictor of OCB among managerial employees at selected private manufacturing firms of Chhattisgarh state, and the hypothesis is accepted. Similar studies were found consistent with the results (Levin and Isen, 1975; Bateman and Organ, 1983; Smith et al., 1983; Puffer, 1987; Organ and Konovsky, 1989; Witt, 1991; Schnake, 1991; Murphy et al., 2002; Miao, 2011; Bowling et al., 2012; Mehboob and Bhutto, 2012; Pavalache-Ilie, 2013; Andrade et al., 2016). Thus, it can be derived that when the satisfaction among managerial employees increases, OCB also increases in the workplace. In other words, extra role behaviour among managerial employees can be enhanced and created if the organisation has well taken care of the satisfaction level of employees.
The outcome of the fourth hypothesis test revealed that effective leadership did partially mediate the link between job satisfaction and OCB among managerial employees at selected private manufacturing firms of Chhattisgarh state, and the hypothesis is accepted. Thus, it can be concluded that when effective leadership is introduced, satisfied employees get more inclined towards extra role behaviour. In other words, the higher the effectiveness of leadership at the workplace, the satisfied employees demonstrate higher extra role behaviour in the organisation.
The result of the fifth hypothesis test revealed that effective leadership did moderate the link between job satisfaction and OCB among managerial employees at the selected private manufacturing firms of Chhattisgarh state, and the hypothesis is accepted. Thus, it can be derived that when effective leadership is combined with job satisfaction in the workplace, it demonstrates positively, but slightly enhances extra role behaviour among employees. In other words, the moderation effect of effective leadership explained a weak relationship between job satisfaction and OCB, it means there could be other factors in play which strongly and positively affect OCB.
The outcome explained that the presence of effective leadership significantly and positively enhances the job satisfaction and OCB in the workplace. In addition, effective leadership not only mediate, but also moderate the link between job satisfaction and OCB significantly and positively, which mean that the presence of effective leadership helps the organisation to turn employees to demonstrate extra role behaviour at the workplace.
Creating citizenship behaviour in the organisation is not an easy task to achieve. Employees tend to connect with the organisation and feel to be a part of the organisation, then, its further lead to extra role behaviour which can only be achieved through leadership effectiveness. An organisation is where citizenship behaviour among employees has been developed, that organisation can easily achieve their targets and reach their goals effectively and efficiently. Employees would be more productive and responsible to their work, which resulted in the improvement in the overall organisational performance. Along with private manufacturing firms, other sectors can also get benefitted from the results suggested in the present study. The study provides results that how effective leadership can transform the employees' work behaviour and their performance which leads to improved organisational performance.
Globally, it is a known fact that the growth and development of any organisation directly linked with its leadership effectiveness. It does not mean that leadership should be seen at the top-level management only, but it means the leaders and leadership are available at every level of the organisation, which should be nourished, cherished, rightly guided and advised.
COVID-19 has forced all the organisations to change their way of working and impacted their revenue drastically, which caused huge depression among employees in the organisation. Now in order to sustain in the cut-throat competitive environment, the organisations are needed to retain the talented employees and transform them for extra role behaviour, so that the organisation could revive and make profits in the long run, which can only be achieved through effective leadership. Effective leadership helps organisation to achieve their predetermined goals and objectives, and is directly linked with its growth and development. The present study deals with investigating the direct, mediating and moderating effect of effective leadership on job satisfaction and OCB among managerial employees of selected private manufacturing firms of Chhattisgarh state. The analysis revealed that the effective leadership is positively and significantly associated with job satisfaction and OCB. It also predicted a significant mediating and moderating effect between job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour. The authors also found a direct and significant relationship of job satisfaction on OCB. The findings indicated the significance of effective leadership in the workplace to how it can enhance the effectiveness of all the organisational processes and overall performance by creating extra-role behaviour among employees.
The sample size of the present study was limited to 400, which can be extended for better and accurate results. The results derived in the study is limited to the studied region, i.e. Raipur, Durg, Raigarh and Korba, hence it cannot be generalised. As far as the funding is concerned, it was self-funded.
6.2 Future research avenues
The future researcher can extend the model and take variables such as employee commitment, organisational performance, employee retention etc. to contribute knowledge in this area.
Theoretical construct and measurement scale
|Effective leadership||Adapted from Nilwala et al. (2017)|
|1||I express with a few simple words what we could and should do|
|2||I help others develop themselves|
|3||I am satisfied when others meet-agreed upon standards|
|4||I am confident to let others continue working in the same ways always|
|5||Others have complete faith in me|
|6||I provide appealing images about what we can do|
|7||I provide others with new ways of looking at puzzlings things|
|8||I provide recognition/rewards when others reach their goals|
|9||As long as things are working, I do not try to change anything|
|10||Whatever others want to do is OK with me|
|Job satisfaction||Adapted from Macdonald and Maclntyre (1997)|
|1||I receive recognition for a job well done|
|2||I feel close to the people at work|
|3||I feel good about working at this company|
|4||I feel secure about my job|
|5||I believe management is concerned about me|
|6||On the whole, I believe work is good for my physical health|
|7||My wages are good|
|8||All my talents and skills are used at work|
|9||I get along with my supervisors|
|10||I feel good about my job|
|Organisational citizenship behaviour||Modified from DiPaola and Hoy (2005)|
|1||Employees help subordinates on their own time|
|2||Employees wastes a lot of work time|
|3||Employees voluntarily help new employees|
|4||Employees volunteer to serve on new groups|
|5||Employees arrive to work and meeting on time|
|6||Employees take the initiative to introduce themselves to substitutes and assist them|
|7||Employees begin work promptly and use work time effectively|
|8||Employees give colleagues advanced notice of changes in schedule or routine|
|9||Employees give an excessive amount of busy work|
|10||Employee groups in the organisation work effectively|
|11||Employees provide their personal time to complete work voluntarily|
|12||Employees make innovative suggestions to improve the overall quality of organisational products|
|Construct||Item code||Item loading||Cronbach’s alpha||Rho A||CR||AVE|
|Organisational citizenship behaviour||OCB1||0.72||0.867||0.875||0.865||0.555|
Discriminant validity (Fornell–Larcker criterion)
|Job satisfaction||Leadership||Organisation citizenship behaviour|
|Organisational citizenship behaviour||0.715||0.708||0.796|
Relationship between leadership, job satisfaction and OCB
|Variables||Path coefficient (β)||Direct effect (R2)||Critical ratio||p-value|
|ELS → JS||0.76||0.765||11.668||***|
|ELS → OCB||0.887||0.357||6.802||***|
|JS → OCB||0.774||0.369||7.332||***|
Note(s): [ELS = Effective Leadership; JS = Job Satisfaction, and OCB = Organisational Citizenship Behaviour; *** means p < 0.001]
Direct, indirect and total effects between job satisfaction, effective leadership and organisational citizenship behaviour
|Predicted relationship||Standardised path loading (β)||t-value||p-value||Indirect effect||Total effect|
|JS → ELS||0.448||10.015||***||–||0.448|
|JS → OCB||0.171||4.860||***||0.308||0.479|
|ELS → OCB||0.687||19.526||***||–||0.687|
Moderation effect of effective leadership between job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour
|*********** PROCESS Procedure for SPSS version 3.4 *****************|
|Written by Andrew F. Hayes, Ph.D. www.afhayes.com|
|Documentation available in Hayes (2018). www.guilford.com/p/hayes3|
|Product terms key|
|Test(s) of highest order unconditional interaction(s)|
Outcomes of proposed hypotheses
|H1||Effective leadership would emerge as a positive predictor of job satisfaction||Confirmed|
|H2||Effective leadership would emerge as a positive predictor of OCB||Confirmed|
|H3||Job satisfaction would emerge as a positive predictor of OCB||Confirmed|
|H4||Effective leadership would emerge as a significant mediator in the link between job satisfaction and OCB||Confirmed|
|H5||Effective leadership would emerge as a significant moderator in the link between job satisfaction and OCB||Confirmed|
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