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The comprehensive mechanistic insight into the effects of vitamin D on dementia – a review

Jaber Jafarzadeh (Faculty of Nutrition and Food Science, Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran)
Laleh Payahoo (Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran)
Mohammad Yousefi (Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Science, Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran)
Ali Barzegar (Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Science, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran)

Nutrition & Food Science

ISSN: 0034-6659

Article publication date: 18 November 2021

Issue publication date: 28 April 2022

124

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to depict the mechanistic role of vitamin D on dementia prevention, relief of the severity and the complication of the disease. All papers indexed in scientific databases, including Scopus, Elsevier, PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar between 2000 and 2021 were extracted and discussed. To present the mechanistic role of vitamin D in declining the severity of dementia, keywords including dementia, vitamin D, oxidative stress, inflammation, amyloid beta-Peptides were used.

Design/methodology/approach

Dementia is a prevalent cognitive disorder worldwide, especially in elderly people, which is accompanied by serious disabilities. Besides genetic, biological and lifestyle factors are involved in the incidence of dementia. An unhealthy diet along with micronutrient deficiencies are among modifiable factors. Vitamin D is one of the important micronutrients in brain health. Besides the involvement in gene expression, bone mineralization, apoptosis, inflammation, skeletal maturation, neurotropic action and hemostasis of phosphate and calcium, vitamin D also exerts neuroprotective effects via genomic and non-genomic pathways.

Findings

Vitamin D up-regulates the expression of various genes involved in dementia incidence via various mechanisms. Decreasing oxidative stress and the neuro-inflammatory cytokines levels, regulation of the expression of alternated Proteins including Tau and Amyloid-ß, calcium homeostasis in the central nervous system and also vascular are considered main mechanisms.

Originality/value

Considering the importance of diet in preventing dementia, adherence to a healthy diet that provides essential nutrients to brain function seems to be urgent. Controlling serum levels of vitamin D periodically and providing vitamin D by related sources or supplements, if there is a deficiency, is recommended. Future studies are needed to clarify other related mechanisms.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the student research committee of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.

Author contributions: Jaber Jafarzadeh developed the theoretical framework of the manuscript. Laleh Payahoo collected data and harmonized them and also edited all sections of the manuscript. Mohammad Yousefi edited the manuscript and corrected suggestions by Ali Barzegar contributed to the design of the research and also participated in English editing of the manuscript.

Citation

Jafarzadeh, J., Payahoo, L., Yousefi, M. and Barzegar, A. (2022), "The comprehensive mechanistic insight into the effects of vitamin D on dementia – a review", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 52 No. 4, pp. 698-721. https://doi.org/10.1108/NFS-08-2021-0256

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited

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