Recent research has suggested the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on kidney function; however, differences in these benefits have not been well-documented with respect to different omega-3 fatty acid sources. Hence, the purpose of this study is to compare the effects of plants, marine sources of omega-3 fatty acids and their combination on biomarkers of renal function in overweight and obese individuals.
Ninety-nine overweight and obese women from a weight loss clinic received three weight-reducing diets with fish (300 g/week), walnuts (18 walnuts/week) or fish + walnuts (150 g fish + 9 walnuts/week) for 12 weeks. Serum biomarkers of renal function were measured at the beginning and the end of the intervention.
After 12 weeks, a reduction in serum creatinine was statistically higher for both the fish + walnut (−0.16 ± 0.09 mg/dL, p = 0.001) and walnut (−0.15 ± 0.05 mg/dL, p = 0.001) diets compared with the fish diet (−0.05 ± 0.04 mg/dL). A significant decrease was seen in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level in the fish + walnut group (−0.12 ± 0.05 mg/dL, p = 0.03) and walnut group (−0.10 ± 0.04 mg/dL, p = 0.03) compared to the fish group (−0.05 ± 0.03 mg/dL). The effect of serum creatinine and BUN in the fish + walnut diet group was relatively higher than in the walnut diet group. Also, a significant difference was observed regarding weight loss in the fish + walnut diet (−7.2 ± 0.9 kg, p = 0.03) compared to in the other groups. The change in other indices was not different among the three diets.
This study found synergistic benefits of the plant and marine omega-3 fatty acids in reducing serum creatinine, BUN and weight compared with isolated marine omega-3s in overweight and obese women.
The study was supported by the National Institutes of Medical Research Development (NIMAD) with code: 943723, Tehran, Iran. We are grateful to the volunteers who participated in the study.
Authors' contribution: L. A designed the study. S.F and F.H contributed to the performance of intervention. S.F and L.A performed the statistical analyses and wrote the initial draft of the manuscript. S.F, F.H, PJ.S and B.L prepared final draft.
Transparency Declaration: The lead author affirms that this manuscript is an honest, accurate, and transparent account of the study being reported. The reporting of this work is compliant with CONSORT guidelines. The lead author affirms that no important aspects of the study have been omitted and that any discrepancies from the study as planned (ClinicalTrial.gov with code: NCT03197220) have been explained.
Fatahi, S., Haghighatdoost, F., Larijani, B., Surkan, P.J. and Azadbakht, L. (2021), "Effects of a diet containing different sources of omega-3 fatty acids on kidney-related biomarkers in overweight and obese individuals: a randomized clinical trial", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 51 No. 5, pp. 866-877. https://doi.org/10.1108/NFS-05-2020-0160
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