This study aims to investigate the association of vitamin D intake and the risk of depression, anxiety and stress among Tehranian female adolescents.
This cross-sectional analysis included 263 participants. A valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire was used to determine dietary intake of vitamin D. Depression, anxiety and stress scores were characterized by Depression Anxiety Stress Score-21 questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for the occurrence of depression, anxiety and stress according to the tertiles of vitamin D intake.
The mean ± standard deviation age and body mass index (BMI) of participants were 16.2 ± 1.0 years and 22.2 ± 4.1 kg/m2, respectively. Mean score of depression, anxiety and stress of participants were 9.8 (low-grade depression), 8.4 (low-grade anxiety) and 14.0 (borderline for stress), respectively. In the final model, after adjustment for age, BMI, physical activity, mother/father’s education level, dietary fiber and total energy intake, the OR for depression in the highest compared to the lowest tertile of vitamin D intake was 0.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24–0.98) (p for trend: 0.040). Moreover, based on the fully adjusted model, participants in the highest tertile of vitamin D intake had lower odds of stress (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.23–0.93), in comparison to those in the lowest one (p for trend: 0.021).
To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to assess the association of vitamin D intake and risk of psychological disorders, including depression, stress and anxiety in Middle East and North Africa region’s female adolescents.
We express our appreciation to the participants in the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute (WHO Collaborating Center), for their enthusiastic support and to the staff of the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences.
Financial support: This work was financially supported by the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute (WHO Collaborating Center), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (Grant number 450109).
Authors’ contribution: A.N.T. and A.S. contributed in conception and design, H.F. contributed in statistical analyses. A.N.T. contributed in generation, collection and assembly and A.N.T., H.F. and A.H. contributed in data interpretation and manuscript drafting. H.F and A.H supervised the study. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.
Disclosure statement: The authors report no conflict of interest.
Neshatbini Tehrani, A., Farhadnejad, H., Salehpour, A. and Hekmatdoost, A. (2021), "Vitamin D intake and risk of psychological disorders among female adolescents", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 51 No. 4, pp. 633-642. https://doi.org/10.1108/NFS-03-2020-0070
Emerald Publishing Limited
Copyright © 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited