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A comprehensive nutritional support perspective in patients with COVID-19: a review

Soraiya Ebrahimpour-Koujan (Department of Clinical Nutrition, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran)
Amir Ali Sohrabpour (Department of Internal Medicine, The Liver, Pancreatic, and Biliary Disease Research Center, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran)
Saeid Safari (Functional Neurosurgery Research Center, Comprehensive Neurosurgical Center of Excellence, Neuroscience Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran)
Nima Baziar (Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran)
Shima Hadavi (Department of Treatment, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran)
Laleh Payahoo (Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran)
Samaneh Shabani (Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran)

Nutrition & Food Science

ISSN: 0034-6659

Article publication date: 14 June 2022

Issue publication date: 7 February 2023

96

Abstract

Purpose

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is becoming a crucial health problem worldwide. Continued and high-speed mutations of this virus result in the appearance of new manifestations, making the control of this disease difficult. It has been shown that well-nourished patients have strong immune systems who mostly have short-term hospitalization compared to others. The purpose of this study is to review the major nutrients involved in the immune system reinforcement and to explain nutritional aspects during the recovery of COVID-19.

Design/methodology/approach

In this review paper, the mechanistic role of nutrients in boosting the immune system and the nutritional aspects during the recovery of COVID-19 patients were discussed. Papers indexed in scientific databases were searched using antioxidants, COVID-19, inflammation, immune system, macronutrient, micronutrient and probiotic as keywords from 2000 to 2022.

Findings

Because of the adverse effects of drugs like thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and hypercholesterolemia, a balanced diet with enough concentrations of energy and macronutrients could increase the patient's durability. The inflammatory cytokines in a vicious cycle delay patients’ rehabilitation. The main mechanistic roles of micronutrients are attributed to the downregulation of virus replication and are involved in energy homeostasis. Dysbiosis is defined as another disturbance among COVID-19 patients, and supplementation with beneficial strains of probiotics helps to exert anti-inflammatory effects in this regard. Being on a well-planned diet with anti-inflammatory properties could reverse cytokine storms as the major feature of COVID-19. Future studies are needed to determine the safe and effective dose of dietary factors to control the COVID-19 patients.

Originality/value

Being on a well-planned diet with anti-inflammatory properties could reverse cytokine storms as the major feature of COVID-19. Future studies are needed to determine the safe and effective dose of dietary factors to control the COVID-19 patients.

Keywords

Citation

Ebrahimpour-Koujan, S., Sohrabpour, A.A., Safari, S., Baziar, N., Hadavi, S., Payahoo, L. and Shabani, S. (2023), "A comprehensive nutritional support perspective in patients with COVID-19: a review", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 53 No. 2, pp. 334-357. https://doi.org/10.1108/NFS-01-2022-0015

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited

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