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Expanding international business research on foreignness: A viewpoint

Arpita Joardar (Graduate School of Management, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA)
Tatiana Kostova (International Business Department, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA)
Sibin Wu (Department of Management, University of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg, Texas, USA)

Management Research Review

ISSN: 2040-8269

Article publication date: 11 November 2014




The purpose of this paper is to present our viewpoint on the research on foreignness and provide directions for future studies. We suggest that research on foreignness can be expanded by exploring its complexity.


This article takes the form of a viewpoint.


We identify three facets of foreignness – foreignness effect (liabilities or assets) foreignness level (organizational or individual) and foreignness locus (external or internal to an entity), which have not been sufficiently examined in prior research.


We discuss how these aspects can inform a novel research agenda in this area.



We are very grateful to Joseph Sarkis for his valuable feedback. Authors are listed in alphabetical order.


Joardar, A., Kostova, T. and Wu, S. (2014), "Expanding international business research on foreignness: A viewpoint", Management Research Review, Vol. 37 No. 12, pp. 1018-1025.



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