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A multi-level programming model for green supplier selection

Srikant Gupta (Department of Operations and Decision Sciences, Jaipuria Institute of Management, Jaipur, India)
Prasenjit Chatterjee (Department of Mechanical Engineering, MCKV Institute of Engineering, Howrah, India)
Morteza Yazdani (ESIC Business and Marketing School, Madrid, Spain)
Ernesto D.R. Santibanez Gonzalez (Department of Industrial Engineering, CES 4.0 Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, Curico University of Talca, Talca, Chile)

Management Decision

ISSN: 0025-1747

Article publication date: 19 January 2021

Issue publication date: 6 September 2021




Industrial organizations often face difficulties in finding out the methods to meet ever increasing customer expectations and to remain competitive in the global market while maintaining controllable expenses. An effective and efficient green supply chain management (GSCM) can provide a competitive edge to the business. This paper focusses on the selection of green suppliers while simultaneously balancing economic, environmental and social issues.


In this study, it is assumed that two types of decision-makers (DMs), namely, the first level and second-level DMs operate at two separate groups in GSC. The first-level DMs always empathise to optimize carbon emissions, per unit energy consumption per product and per unit waste production, while the second-level DMs seek to optimize ordering costs, number of rejected units and number of late delivered units in the entire GSCM. In this paper, fuzzy goal programming (FGP) approach has been adopted to obtain compromise solution of the formulated problem by attaining the uppermost degree of each membership goal while reducing their deviational variables. Furthermore, demand has also been forecasted using exponential smoothing analysis. The model is verified on a real-time industrial case study.


This research enables DMs to analyse uncertainty scenarios in GSCM when information about different parameters are not known precisely.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed model is restricted to vagueness only, however, DMs may need to consider probabilistic multi-choice scenarios also.

Practical implications

The proposed model is generic and can be applied for large-scale GSC environments with little modifications.


No prior attempt is made till date to present interval type-2 fuzzy sets in a multi-objective GSC environment where the DMs are at hierarchical levels. Interval type-2 fuzzy sets are considered as better ways to represent inconsistencies of human judgements, its incompleteness and imprecision more accurately and objectively. Also, crisp or deterministic forms of uncertain parameters have been obtained by taking expected value of the fuzzy parameters.



Gupta, S., Chatterjee, P., Yazdani, M. and Santibanez Gonzalez, E.D.R. (2021), "A multi-level programming model for green supplier selection", Management Decision, Vol. 59 No. 10, pp. 2496-2527.



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