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Schooling beyond the school: workplace learning in Nepal

Prakash Kumar Paudel (Department of Development Education, Kathmandu University School of Education, Lalitpur, Nepal)
Mahesh Nath Parajuli (Department of Development Education, Kathmandu University School of Education, Lalitpur, Nepal)

Journal of Workplace Learning

ISSN: 1366-5626

Article publication date: 20 February 2023

Issue publication date: 7 March 2023




The purpose of this paper is to discuss the formal workplace learning situation in Nepal and argue that workplace learning is not in priority in Nepali Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) despite a regular policy emphasis.


Data were gathered using both desk-based review of pre-diploma and diploma-level curricula and semi-structured interviews with eight employers and six technical school principals. Coded themes were interpreted in the meaning-making process.


Workplace skills learning in Nepal has remained a neglected agenda. Despite some successful implementation practices and policy recognition, it is stagnated. Employers expect skills in graduates relevant to their demands. However, unfortunately, there needs to be more trust for a culture of shared responsibilities among employers and TVET providers for arranging the provisions so that the learners can acquire the skills that the employers need. There is a blaming game between them, which has ultimately resulted in the poor arrangement of workplace learning.

Practical implications

TVET providers’ and employers’ engaged participation in recognizing and developing workplace learning for making the learning as per the needs of the world of work could benefit them and also support students to upgrade and acquire employability skills.


This paper is based on empirical data and contributes new knowledge in academia which is still rare in the context of Nepal.



For their helpful feedback on an earlier draft, authors thank Prof. Ursula Renold, Chair of Education ETH Zurich, research committee KUSOED, and Dr Durga Prasad Baral. Authors also thank LELAM-TVET4INCOME – an r4d research project jointly funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) for financing the research.

This article draws from the PhD study of the first author on the relationship between education and employment.


Paudel, P.K. and Parajuli, M.N. (2023), "Schooling beyond the school: workplace learning in Nepal", Journal of Workplace Learning, Vol. 35 No. 2, pp. 228-241.



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