To read this content please select one of the options below:

Global nation product equity depending on a level of cultural diffusion

Sookhyun Kim (Johnson & Wales University, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA)
Yuri Lee (Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea)
Aran Jang (Jeju National University, Jeju, Republic of Korea)
Yangim Lee (Department of Marketing & Business Strategy, Westminster Business School, University of Westminster, London, UK)
Claire Lacoste Kapstein (Département Etudes et Recherche, Mod' Spé. Paris, France)

Journal of Product & Brand Management

ISSN: 1061-0421

Article publication date: 18 May 2015




This paper aims to propose the global nation product equity model (GNPE) to measure global consumers’ equity of a product that a country produces, especially a nation’s cultural products (i.e. culducts). The model also examines the significant difference of GNPE depending on a cultural diffusion level. GNPE model proposes that depending on the level of people’s recognition/acceptance/preference of a culture from another country (i.e. cultural diffusion level), the equity of a product from that country could be different in different countries. As variables that affect GNPE, global nation product equity in general, global nation product equity of a product category and nation cultural equity are included in the model.


To test the model, this study developed Hallyu (Korean cultural diffusion)-related Korean culducts and measured global consumers’ equity for the Korean culducts. In all, 351 surveys were collected from China, France, England and the USA.


The results show the significantly different equities and relationships among equities depending on the level of Hallyu diffusion in each country. Therefore, Korea is suggested to focus on different equities in different countries.


This research proposed a new model that extends the previous brand equity models to non-branded products (i.e. cultural products). This model proposed new variables that affect equity of a product mentioned above and suggests different equities to improve in different countries depending on their level of cultural diffusion. Also, this cross-cultural study suggests a direction of culduct design, distribution and promotion strategies in the global market.



Kim, S., Lee, Y., Jang, A., Lee, Y. and Kapstein, C.L. (2015), "Global nation product equity depending on a level of cultural diffusion", Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 24 No. 3, pp. 276-286.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2015, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Related articles