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Governance and accountability in hybrid organizations – past, present and future

Jarmo Vakkuri (Faculty of Management and Business, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland)
Jan-Erik Johanson (Faculty of Management and Business, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland)
Nancy Chun Feng (Department of Accounting, Suffolk University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA)
Filippo Giordano (Department of Law, Economics, Politics and Modern Languages, Libera Universita Maria Santissima Assunta, Rome, Italy)

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management

ISSN: 1096-3367

Article publication date: 26 March 2021

Issue publication date: 2 June 2021




In addressing policy problems, it is difficult to disentangle public policies from private efforts, business institutions and civic activities. Societies may acknowledge that all these domains have a role in accomplishing social aims, but there are fundamental problems in understanding why, how and with what implications this occurs. Drawing upon the insights from the papers of this special issue, the authors aim to advance the understanding of governance and accountability in different contexts of hybridity, hybrid governance and organizations.


The authors conceptualize common theoretical origins of hybrid organizations and the ways in which they create and enact value by reflecting on the articles of the special issue. Furthermore, the authors propose agendas for future research into hybrid organizations.


Hybrid organizations can be conceptualized through two types of lenses: (1) the dimensions of hybridity (ownership, institutional logics, funding and control) and (2) their approaches to value creation (mixing, compromising and legitimizing).

Practical implications

This article provides more detailed and comprehensive understanding of hybridity. This contribution has also important practical implications for actors, such as politicians, managers, street-level bureaucrats, professionals, auditors and accountants who may be enveloped in various hybrid settings, policy contexts and multi-faceted interfaces between public, private and the civil society sector.


Hybridity lenses reveal novel connections between four types of hybrid institutional contexts: state-owned enterprises (SOEs), non-profit organizations (NPOs), social enterprises (SEs) and municipally owned corporations (MOCs). This paper provides theoretical instruments for doing so.



The guest editors want to thank the Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting and Financial Management for the opportunity to introduce this important special issue on hybridity and hybrid organizations. The authors also thank for the constructive comments and recommendations by the reviewers regarding our conceptual paper.Funding: This study has been supported by the Academy of Finland (Grant number 326525).


Vakkuri, J., Johanson, J.-E., Feng, N.C. and Giordano, F. (2021), "Governance and accountability in hybrid organizations – past, present and future", Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, Vol. 33 No. 3, pp. 245-260.



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