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Improving self-regulated learning competencies of service employees: roles of regulatory appraisals and supportive resources

A. Banu Elmadag (School of Marketing, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, USA)
Mehmet Okan (Faculty of Management, Artvin Coruh University, Artvin, Turkey)
Ece Kurtuldu (Department of Management Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey)

Journal of Organizational Change Management

ISSN: 0953-4814

Article publication date: 30 December 2022

Issue publication date: 10 May 2023




In the era of technological advancements such as artificial intelligence and robotics, the working environment of service employees is changing, and the need to self-regulate their learning efforts has reached a pinnacle. The purpose of this study is to investigate how supportive resources (organizational investments in social capital, supervisor support and favorable customer feedback) facilitate service employees' self-regulated learning competencies (SRLCs) and how individual factors (self-efficacy and goal orientation) regulate service employee performance outcomes (commitment to service quality and job performance).


Drawing on the social cognitive theory and social capital perspectives, a quantitative survey was implemented with 516 service employees of a corporation operating in Turkey in various service sectors (i.e. retailing, health and technology). The data are analyzed through a covariance-based structural equation model.


Results showed that organizational, supervisory and customer-level supportive resources improved SRLCs and subsequently performance outcomes. Service employees' goal orientation and self-efficacy attenuate the relationship between supportive resources and SRLCs.


This paper enhances the current literature by investigating SRLCs of frontline service employees who need more dynamic and adaptive self-managed self-regulated learning rather than passive training activities. Moreover, the unexpected negative effect of regulatory mechanisms (goal orientation and self-efficacy) on the relationship between supportive resources and SRLCs opens new avenues for managers.



Elmadag, A.B., Okan, M. and Kurtuldu, E. (2023), "Improving self-regulated learning competencies of service employees: roles of regulatory appraisals and supportive resources", Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 36 No. 2, pp. 290-304.



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