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Relationship of immediate workspace and environmental workplace with organizational citizenship behaviors

Kameron M. Carter (School of Labor and Employment Relations, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA)
David M. Harman (Department of Marketing, University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA)
Sheryl L. Walter (Department of Management and Entrepreneurship, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana, USA)
Thomas S. Gruca (Department of Marketing, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA)

Journal of Managerial Psychology

ISSN: 0268-3946

Article publication date: 4 September 2020

Issue publication date: 27 April 2021




The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of immediate workspace satisfaction (IWS) and environmental workplace quality (EWQ) on perceived organizational support (POS), engagement and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). In this paper, we draw on social exchange theory and environmental psychology to propose IWS and EWQ as drivers of employee OCBs.


A survey was conducted with 1,206 full-time employees. The EWQ measure was assessed with a randomly selected calibration sample (n = 603). Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the hypothesized model (n = 603).


IWS and EWQ both are positively related to employees’ OCBs. For IWS, the effect was fully mediated by POS while POS and engagement partially mediated the EWQ–OCB relationship.

Research limitations/implications

The survey was conducted at one point in time and may introduce common method variance.

Practical implications

High-quality, satisfying workspace and workplace environments motivate employee OCBs through POS and work engagement.


This study introduces a scale for measuring EWQ. Empirical evidence provided to support the effects of two contextual perceptions—IWS and EWQ—on employee discretionary behaviors.



The authors thank Cheryl Durst (Executive Vice President and CEO, IIDA), Martin Flaherty (President of Pencilbox, Inc.), David Krysiek (Co-founder and Partner, The Brandware Group, Inc.) and Thomas Reardon (Executive Director, BIFMA) for their assistance in making this research possible. David Krysiek developed the Environmental Workplace Quality scale.


Carter, K.M., Harman, D.M., Walter, S.L. and Gruca, T.S. (2021), "Relationship of immediate workspace and environmental workplace with organizational citizenship behaviors", Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 36 No. 4, pp. 310-326.



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Copyright © 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited

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