A citation analysis of corporate social responsibility (1970-2014): insights from Islamic perspective

Yazeed Alfakhri (College of Business Administration, Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)
Mohammad Nurunnabi (St Antony’s College, University of Oxford, UK and College of Business Administration, Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)
Demah Alfakhri (Independent Researcher, São Paulo, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)

Journal of Islamic Marketing

ISSN: 1759-0833

Publication date: 10 September 2018

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the citations of scientific research on the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) from 1970 to 2014. In particular, several interconnected research questions were investigated: How did the conceptualisation of CSR change from 1970 to 2014? What is the general direction of the change? How does Islamic CSR emerge?

Design/methodology/approach

An in-depth analysis was performed with the use of the data analysis tool available in the Web of Science. The study categorises CSR into four areas: business ethics and corporate governance; management; marketing; and others. The first three categories were based on the Chartered Association of Business Schools’ Academic Journal Guide 2010 and 2015 (UK).

Findings

The findings reveal that 67.19 per cent articles have been published based on the ranked journals of Academic Journal Guide 2010 and 2015. The findings of the study will help to inform future areas of CSR. The top journals which published most articles from Academic Journal Guide 2015 are Journal of Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that the remit of sustainability from Islamic perspective is wider. Islamic marketing, as an area, remains largely in need of empirical research. The business communities should successfully integrate Muslim communities into their marketing strategies.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge, this is the first study to explore citation analysis of general CSR literature and Islamic CSR. The study finds that there has been an increase in interest in this subject of CSR and Islam in the recent years. Future research is needed on theory and methodological analysis of general CSR field and Islamic CSR field.

Keywords

Citation

Alfakhri, Y., Nurunnabi, M. and Alfakhri, D. (2018), "A citation analysis of corporate social responsibility (1970-2014): insights from Islamic perspective", Journal of Islamic Marketing, Vol. 9 No. 3, pp. 621-654. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-09-2017-0092

Download as .RIS

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited


1. Introduction

Issues relating to the field of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in a number of countries around the world have been extensively covered both in the media and the literature during the past few decades (Idowu, 2011; Chen, 2011). The early roots of CSR were traced back to 1917, when Henry Ford announced the goal of Ford Motor company “To do as much as possible for everybody concerned, to make money and use it, give employment, and send out the car where the people can use it […] and incidentally to make money” (Lee, 2008, p. 54; Wang, 2015, p. 7). After eighty years, Henry Ford’s great-grandson, William Clay Ford Jr emphasised the value of all stakeholders’ interests and the social welfare of the employees. Lee (2008, p. 58) argues that the dominant themes of the 1950s and 1960s were ethics and social obligation of businesses. From that movement, CSR, today, has been significantly institutionalised in the business community. For instance, most of Fortune 500 firms not only mention but also actively promote CSR in their annual reports.

The present study reviews the concept of CSR and entails several interconnected research questions: How did the conceptualisation of CSR change from 1970 to 2014? What is the general direction of the change? How does Islamic CSR emerge? The citation analysis approach, which is “concerned with the number of citations that an article has gathered over time in other published research” (King, 1987 cited in Al-Abdin et al., 2012), has been used in this study. We first carried out the analysis in the area of CSR. Then, similar analysis was carried out to consider the articles that discuss the concept of CSR from an Islamic perspective. The study contributes to identify the main themes in the field of CSR from 1970 to 2014. In addition, it reveals trends in the CSR literature, and in particular, the Islamic CSR development also emphasised.

The remainder of the paper proceeds as follows. Section 2 outlines research methodology. Section 3 reviews the citation analysis of CSR and provides important themes. Section 4 provides citations analysis of CSR from Islamic perspective. Section 5 discusses the overall summary of general CSR and Islamic CSR. Section 6 contains conclusions and implications.

2. Research methodology

Petticrew and Roberts (2008, p. 44) argue that a systematic literature review protocol should include “a description of and rationale for the review question, and the proposed methods, and […] details of how different types of study will be located, appraised and synthesized” (Petticrew and Roberts, 2008, p. 44). Following the steps of Petticrew and Roberts (2008), the research protocol in this study followed several steps (Figure 1):

  • questions;

  • search;

  • impact;

  • reliability;

  • validity; and

  • code.

The Web of Science, an online academic database, was used as the basic source of references that were used to analyse. Accordingly, this database has been chosen as it provides access to many disciplinary research areas. There are many references discussing the topic of CSR; hence, the researcher limited the result by searching for references that included any of the following terms in their titles, “CSR” or “Corporate Social Responsibility”. In addition, the following conditions were considered:

  • The publication period was between 1970 and 2014.

  • The editorial material and book reviews were excluded.

  • The duplicate articles were by prolific authors excluded.

  • The conference proceedings were excluded.

Two “Web of Science” categories, “Business” and “Management”, were chosen to filter the results. The final result therefore was a total of 775 articles which had appeared and used in the first step of citation analysis. As the present study is co-authored by several researchers, all the investigators were involved in ensuring a standard approach to developing the research protocol and ensuring the reliability and validity of the findings.

This timeframe was selected to analyse trends in CSR and Islamic CSR for the 45 years. The articles have been divided into five periods: 1970-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000, 2001-2006 and 2007-2014. Figure 2 shows the number of published articles regarding CSR in each of these periods. According to Figure 2, there has been a dramatic increase in publications in the field of CSR since 2001, with the number of articles that were published between 2007 and 2014 being 598 which represents more than 75 per cent of the total number of articles.

3. Citation analysis of corporate social responsibility

Based on the analysed articles, some authors have written more than one article. These authors are listed in Table I. Jamali has written the most articles, with ten articles between 2007 and 2014, while Bhattacharya came second with nine articles between 2001 and 2014, three articles between 2001 and 2006 and six articles between 2007 and 2014. Most authors wrote one article in the 1970s and 1980s except Carroll and David who have written two articles. Carroll (1979) points out that Bowen’s (1953) Social Responsibilities of the Businessman as the first attempt to theorise the relationship between corporations and society.

Table II presents that the articles were divided into four categories: business ethics and corporate governance; management; marketing; and others. The first three categories were based on the Chartered Association of Business Schools’ Academic Journal Guide 2010 and 2015 as this journal rank the categories of academic journals and is widely accepted (Chartered Association of Business Schools, 2015). The journals that are not listed in the ABS ranking in the mentioned categories were classified as “Others”. In total, 401 out 765 articles (52.42 per cent) were classified under the business ethics and corporate governance category, while 80 (10.46 per cent) articles were classified under the management category and 63 (8.24 per cent) under the marketing category (Table II). Figure 3 shows that no articles were published on the business ethics and corporate governance or marketing categories in the 1970s. On the other hand, 11 articles were published in management journals. However, the number of published articles in Management journals dropped for two consecutive periods before it recovered in 2001.

Table III presents that a total of 514 of 765 (67.19 per cent) articles have been published based on the ranked journals of Academic Journal Guide 2010 and 2015. There are five categories of ABS (2015) rank-wise 4 star [Elite journals] followed by 4, 3, 2; and 1. Figure 4 shows that 3 per cent journals published in 4-star journals; 4 per cent in four; 72 per cent in three; 12 per cent in two; 9 per cent in one-star journals. The highest number of publications was in three-star journals (370 out of 514). The top ten journals which published more than 86 per cent articles from Academic Journal Guide 2015 are Journal of Business Ethics; Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management; Business Ethics: A European Review; California Management Review; Corporate Governance: An International Review; Management Decision; Business and Society; Journal of Management Studies; Journal of Business Research; and Baltic Journal of Management. In particular, 307 articles were published in Journal of Business Ethics.

A citation value (CV) can be defined as “a ratio of individual citations to the total citations” (Backhaus et al., 2011, p. 940). Based on this, a CV was formulated, and all the 775 articles were analysed and divided into five parts based on their publication period. Table IV shows the top ten most influential authors in the period (1970-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000, 2001-2006 and 2007-2014) based on the CV score. From 1970 to 2014, the most influential authors were Abbott and Monsen (1979) – 30.00 per cent; Mcguire et al. (1988) – 30.20 per cent; and McWilliams and Siegel (2000) – 29.60 per cent.

The researchers read the articles from each period and identified the main themes of the period. Table V shows the dominant themes of each period (1970-2014). The themes were based on the main subject discussed; for example, most articles that were published between 1970 and 1980 discussed managers’ perceptions and attitudes toward CSR; this was the dominant theme in this period. There was more than one theme for some categories. For example, there were two main themes for articles published between 1991 and 2000. As shown in Table V, at the beginning of 1980s, authors were interested in the relationship between CSR and financial performance. The subject of CSR and ethics was one of the main themes for articles that were published between 1991 and 2000. Many themes were identified for articles published between 2001 and 2006. Since 2001, many researchers have taken consumers into consideration by investigating their perceptions of and reactions to the concept of CSR and its impact on consumer behaviour. During the past five years, new themes such as CSR and sustainability and CSR and corporate governance have emerged.

Each theme in Table V was analysed individually and articles that discussed them highlighted. The main theme for articles published between 1970 and 1980 was the attitudes and perceptions of managers regarding CSR. In Theme 1, there were three articles that discussed this subject, all of which were published in journals that are classified as belonging to the Management (MGT) category as can be seen in Appendix 1. In Theme 2, a total number of five articles represent the dominant theme for articles published between 1981 and 1990 which is CSR and financial performance as can be seen in Appendix 1. Only one article was categorised as the business ethics and corporate governance (BE and CG) category, while the others are classified as belonging to the management category.

In Theme 3, there were two articles under CSR and Public Relations, while Theme 4 consists of three articles under CSR and ethics. All articles in Theme 4 were published in the Journal of Business Ethics. A total of 92 articles were published between 2001 and 2006 in Theme 5. Three dominant was classified in the business ethics and corporate governance category, and all are published in the Journal of Business Ethics. However, this is not a new theme as this theme was identified for the previous period (1991 to 2000) – Theme 4. This indicates that the interest in this subject continued.

In Theme 6, three articles are categorised in the business ethics and corporate governance, while one article is in the management category. This theme was also significant in the 1980s when researchers started to examine the relationship between CSR and profitability. In Theme 7, marketing the main theme for this period as most of the articles were published in marketing journals. Researchers examined the attitudes and perceptions of managers regarding CSR in the 1970s, as this was the leading theme for that period. However, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, researchers in the field of CSR changed the focus to research on consumers, examining the perceptions and attitudes of consumers regarding the concept of CSR. In Theme 8, several contexts were identified: business ethics and corporate governance; management; and marketing. Within this theme, authors studied the impact of CSR on corporate reputation and examined the effect of CSR on brand performance.

Sustainability is a new area of research emerged in Theme 9. In this theme, all articles are listed in the business ethics and corporate governance category except one article which is in the management category. Most of the authors have linked CSR with sustainability and examined whether CSR can support organisations’ sustainability strategies. In Theme 10, most articles discuss corporate governance and CSR issues. Jo and Harjoto (2012) are the leading authors in this theme as they have written three articles and have published them in the Journal of Business Ethics. However, the article that was written by Jamali et al. (2008) scored the highest CV with 51.11 per cent.

Theme 11 mainly deals with managers’ perceptions of CSR. All articles were published in the Journal of Business Ethics. During the 1970s, the dominant theme was to examine the attitudes and perceptions of managers regarding CSR. Then, this theme has been developed and currently has become a major theme. This theme includes examining how managers understand their business responsibilities towards society, the importance of top managers for CSR practices, and managers’ perceptions regarding the impact of CSR on organisational performance and companies’ success. Theme 12 predominantly discusses the impact of shareholder and stakeholder on CSR. Articles have been categorised in the three categories: business ethics and corporate governance; management; and marketing. The majority authors in this theme argue that shareholders can play a major role in CSR, and this theme includes different areas of research on the same theme. In addition, this theme includes the impact of CSR on shareholder wealth, how CSR can strength stakeholder–company relationships and examining a stakeholder approach to CSR.

Finally, Theme 13 includes the impact of CSR on consumer trust, consumers’ perception of CSR and consumers’ responses and reactions to CSR. This is the major theme for articles published between 2007 and 2014 when it has the highest number of articles. A total number of 598 articles were published between 2007 and 2014, which represents more than 75 per cent of the total number of articles published, with seven main themes being identified for this period. Theme 13 is relating to consumer research and was also the dominant theme for the previous period. This indicates that currently there is a trend in the CSR field to seek to understand and explore the concept of CSR from the consumers’ perspectives. This theme is the dominant one and is a major theme as many articles have discussed it in the past 10 years.

4. Citation analysis of Islamic corporate social responsibility

The previous procedure (as explained in Section 2) analysis was carried to find out the development of Islamic CSR. Accordingly, citation analysis highlighted articles that focus on and discuss the concept of CSR from an Islamic perspective. From the analysis, a total number of 49 articles were identified and analysed (Figure 5). Based on Figure 5, the first article that discussed CSR in Islam was published in 2001. In addition, there has been an increase in interest in this subject, as there was only one article published between 2001 and 2004, and then the number of published articles increased to 11 for the period between 2005 and 2008. During the past four years, the number of articles has increased to 37. More specifically, only 2 per cent of all the articles were published between 2001 and 2004, while 22 per cent were published between 2005 and 2008, and 76 per cent were published between 2009 and 2014. This indicates that recently there has been an increased interest in this area of research, as most articles were published between 2009 and 2014.

The most cited authors with the highest CVs are listed in Table VI. According to Table VI, Brammer et al. (2007) and Saeed et al. (2001) had the highest CVs, as these studies with CV with 26.09 and 23.08, respectively. Brammer et al. (2007) discussed the correlation between individual attitudes and religious denomination in relation to CSR; the sample was massive and covered different religions including Islam, while Saeed et al. (2001) wrote the first article on this field which was published in 2001. The subject for Saeed et al.’s (2001) article is “International Marketing Ethics from an Islamic Perspective”; in this article, they discussed the concept of CSR. There is no significant difference between the CVs of other listed authors.

Table VII presents the four major themes on CSR and Islam (Appendix 2). The most significant theme seems to be CSR of Islamic financial institutions as most researchers have focussed on this subject. Some authors such as Farook and Hassan (Farook, 2007, 2008; Farook and Lanis, 2007; Farook et al., 2011; Hassan and Abdul-Latiff, 2009; Hassan and Harahap, 2010; Hassan et al., 2012) have written articles on different themes. Nevertheless, some authors are dominant in specific subjects in the field, as they have written the greatest number of articles on those topics.

Theme 1 is based on “Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure” and can be considered as major theme. This is because even articles discussed on this topic. Aribi, Gao, Farook, Lanis and Hassan are the dominant authors in this area, as each have written or co-authored more than one article on it. In addition, all articles in this field have focussed on Islamic banks. Theme 2 focusses on “Corporate Social Responsibility of Islamic Financial Institutions”. Farook is the dominant author in this area, as he is the only author who has written two articles. However, the most cited article in this theme is written by Sairally (2007). Theme 3 is based on “Islamic Business Ethics and CSR”. Table VII shows all articles on this theme. The first articles written in the field of CSR and Islam by Saeed et al. (2001) have been categorised under this theme. Indeed, this is the dominant article, as it is the most cited and therefore has the highest CV. The focus of all articles under this theme is Islamic business ethics. However, authors of these articles consider CSR to be part of business ethics. The final theme is “Corporate Social Responsibility from an Islamic Perspective”. There are six articles that focus on this theme. The CV for most articles in the table below is zero, as they are recent studies, and they have not been cited by any other authors yet, while only two articles have been cited. Articles on these themes focus on the concept of CSR from an Islamic perspective and discuss what Islam states about CSR in general.

5. Discussions

5.1 Summary of citation analysis of the literature in the field of corporate social responsibility

Many articles in the field of CSR have been published in the past three decades. Nevertheless, based on the number of published articles, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in this topic during the past 10 years. According to the analysed articles, the least number of articles have been published in marketing journals; this could indicate there is a gap for researchers to publish articles on CSR in the field of marketing, as there is interest in the subject as only a few articles on CSR been published in marketing journals compared to the number published in management journals. The researcher has identified the dominant themes for each of the five periods that were named at the beginning. Thirteen themes emerged that cover all the articles that were published between 1970 and 2014. It is noteworthy that the themes have changed over time and that recently the focus has been on research regarding consumers. Thus, it can be seen that recently authors are considering the importance of understanding the concept of CSR from the consumers’ perspective.

The main themes of CSR in the literature for the past 34 years and highlights the dominant authors and journals. However, in this analysis, the researcher limits the results to the articles that include “Corporate Social Responsibility” or “CSR” in their titles and uses only one source, “The Web of Science”, as the basic source of references. Therefore, one of the limitations of this analysis is that not all articles that have been published in the field of CSR have been covered, as all articles have been taken from only one source. However, even though only one source was used, a total of 775 articles were included in the study. The number of published articles in the field of CSR is huge; the citation analysis approach was used to explore this field systematically. The analysis helped the research to identify the main subjects (themes) that were discussed in articles published between 1970 and 2014 which were summarised in Table V and Appendix 1. In addition, it developed the knowledge of the researcher, as it provided an insight into and details of this field. This analysis could be considered the basis of this study and of any other study in the future.

5.2 Summary of citation analysis of the literature in the field of Islamic corporate social responsibility

The citation analysis (CA2) was carried out to extend the first citation analysis (CA1) which analysed articles in the field of CSR (Table VII). The aim of CA2 was to identify all articles in the field of CSR and Islam; thus, four themes were identified in CA2 (Table VII). To link both analyses, a comparison between these was carried out to find out which themes have been covered in the Islamic CSR literature. As shown previously in CA1 (Table V), there are 13 themes which have been identified. However, some of the 13 themes are similar in CA2; therefore, they were grouped together as nine themes (Table VIII). According to Table VIII, seven themes have been covered in the Islamic CSR literature, while there are two themes (CSR and public relations and CSR and sustainability) which have not been covered and could represent a gap in the literature that requires further study.

5.3 Proposed model

Prior literature lacks theoretical framework of CSR and Islam (El-Bassiouny, 2016). For example, El-Bassiouny (2016, p. 573) argues that “maqasid ash-shari’ah” represent Shari’ah’s objectives and not Shari’ah itself in the aggregate monolithic sense (as Jafaria and Sandıkcıb, 2014 contend) (Figure 6). No manuscript can capture Shari’ah (all Islamic legislation and jurisdiction) in its wholeness, complexity and varied interpretations in relation to all aspects of life. The “maqasid ash-shari’ah” of preservation of self, intellect, posterity, wealth and faith represent the soul of Islamic legislation that permeate its inherent value system and offer a broad framework for actions and deeds consistent with its morals, priorities and ideals. El-Bassiouny et al. (2016) propose a new conceptualisation of sustainability from an Islamic perspective. According to this model:

[…] perceiving sustenance as being granted by Allah and relating to His attributes, sustainability becomes a personal, corporate and societal obligation, which encourages urbanization, in the tradition of Muslim behavioral practices, whereby worship is beyond custodianship of resources and zerosum game transactions. For instance, on the corporate side, a mindset of sustainability has to begin at the inception of corporate practices, and as such is a diffused intrinsic activity, which culminates in an extrinsic overt and identifiable practice. Sustainability also means speculating and utilizing resources in such a way that human existence is elevated through environmental understanding, creating and sharing (El-Bassiouny et al., 2016, p. 4).

6. Conclusions and implications

The objective of this present study is to reviews the concept of CSR and answers several interconnected research questions: How did the conceptualisation of CSR change from 1970 to 2014? What is the general direction of the change? How does Islamic CSR emerge? Based on the citation analysis, the study reveals that the conceptual shift took place on multiple aspects or various themes from 1970 to 2014. Broadly, the changes can be characterised as greater rationalisation of CSR. Prior to 1970s, the focus of CSR research was on the macrosocial institutions for promoting CSR in the 1950s and 1960s (Bowen, 1953).

The study reveals that there are 13 themes that were identified in general CSR field (CA1), and four themes were covered in the Islamic CSR (CA2). Interestingly, the relationship between CSR and public relations or CSR and sustainability from an Islamic perspective has not been discussed in prior literature. Thus, it is worth exploring why authors have not covered these subjects; this could represent a gap in the knowledge that requires further research. Again, most studies so far have examined the concept from the manager’s point of view, and only a limited number of studies have examined the concept from the consumers’ perspective (Atan and Halim, 2012; Nalband and Al-Amri, 2013; Maignan, 2001).

The discussion in this paper is only a starting point. The paper has put forth a comprehensive literature review and proposed framework for Islamic marketing. The proposed model is in need of further empirical research. Islamic marketing, as an area, remains largely in need of empirical research. The role of religion in Islamic CSR has an impact on consumer psychology in Muslim communities. The study has several implications and also offers future research agenda:

  • The findings suggest that the remit of sustainability from Islamic perspective is wider; and “sustainability is embedded and diffused throughout business activities – as opposed to being an upstream strategic objective” (El-Bassiouny et al., 2017). The new realm of Islamic CSR for both Muslim and non-Muslim communities.

  • The business communities should successfully integrate Muslim communities into their marketing strategies (El-Bassiouny, 2016).

  • CSR and Islamic marketing, as a new field of inquiry, may benefit from various research approaches (quantitative and qualitative) and various philosophical paradigms (positivist and interpretivism).

  • A cross-cultural dialogue is needed from the legislators, policymakers and various local and international organisations.

  • Future research in the area of halal product from Islamic lifestyle is needed from empirical setting.

  • An examination of the relationship between Islamic ethics and professional marketing ethics would add to the discourse on Islamic marketing (El-Bassiouny, 2016).

  • Furthering the understanding of religiosity and CSR may advance the Islamic CSR discourse.

  • Further research is needed to understanding the perception of Muslims consumers regarding the concept of CSR.

  • Finally, a further citation analysis is needed to explore articles that focus on CSR from an Islamic perspective with methods and theoretical analysis.

Figures

Protocol to develop a structured literature review in the study

Figure 1.

Protocol to develop a structured literature review in the study

Total number of published articles on CSR (1970-2014)

Figure 2.

Total number of published articles on CSR (1970-2014)

Category (%) of articles in each period (1970-2014)

Figure 3.

Category (%) of articles in each period (1970-2014)

Percentage of published articles in ranked journals

Figure 4.

Percentage of published articles in ranked journals

Total number of published articles in the field of CSR and Islam

Figure 5.

Total number of published articles in the field of CSR and Islam

Islamic religiosity and its marketing implications

Figure 6.

Islamic religiosity and its marketing implications

Author (s) who have written more than one article

Period Author No. of articles
1970-1980 Carroll 2
1981-1990 David 2
1991-2000 Krausz 2
Letang 2
Pava 2
2001-2006 Bhattacharya 3
Husted 3
Maignani 3
Moon 3
2007-2014 Jamali 10
Lindgreen 8
Perrini 7
Bhattacharya 6
Kolk 6
Maon 6
Sen 6
Swaen 6
Tencati 6

Total number of articles published in each category

Category 1970-1980 1981-1990 1991-2000 2001-2006 2007-2014 Total
Business ethics and corporate governance 0 10 14 55 322 401
Management 11 9 2 10 48 80
Marketing 0 2 2 14 45 63
Other 15 7 3 13 183 221
Total 26 28 21 92 598 765

Journals list from ABS rank 2010 and 2015 (UK), and no. of articles on CSR

Journal name ABS rank (stars) 2010 ABS rank (stars) 2015 No. of articles
Business ethics and corporate governance
Journal of Business Ethics 3 3 307
Business and Society 3 3 9
Business Ethics Quarterly 3 4 5
Business Ethics – A European Review 2 2 27
Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 1 1 39
Corporate Governance: An International Review 3 3 14
Total 401
Management
Journal of Management Studies 4 4 7
Academy of Management Journal 4 4* 5
Academy of Management Review 4 4* 5
British Journal of Management 4 4 2
Journal of Management 4 4* 2
California Management Review 3 3 18
Journal of Business Research 3 3 6
International Journal of Management Reviews 4 3 2
MIT Sloan Management Review 3 3 1
Scandinavian Journal of Management 2 2 5
Australian Journal of Management     4
Management Decision 1 2 10
Baltic Journal of Management 1 6
Business Horizons 1 2 4
European Management Journal 2 2 3
Total 80
Marketing
Journal of The Academy of Marketing Science 3 4 4
Journal of Marketing 4 4* 3
Journal of Marketing Research 4 4* 1
Journal of Consumer Research 4 4* 1
Journal of Advertising 3 3 4
International Journal of Research in Marketing 3 4 3
European Journal of Marketing 3 3 3
International Marketing Review 3 3 2
Journal of International Marketing 3 3 2
Journal of Services Marketing 2 2 3
Industrial Marketing Management 3 2 1
Marketing Letters 2 3 1
Public Relations Review    ?show $146#?> 26
Advances in Consumer Research 2 2 3
Journal of Consumer Affairs 2 2
International Journal of Advertising 2 2 1
Marketing Theory 2 3 1
International Journal of Consumer Studies 1 2 2
Total 63

Prolific authors in the field of CSR, 1970-2014

Rank Author (s) CV (%)
1970-1980  
1 Abbott and Monsen (1979) 30.00
2 Bowman and Haire (1975) 22.80
3 Jones (1980) 16.90
4 Holmes (1976) 7.70
5 Grunig (1979) 6.50
6 Ostlund (1977) 5.30
7 Walters (1977) 2.10
8 Shanklin (1976) 1.50
9 Gavin and Maynard (1975) 1.20
10 Churchill and Toan (1978) 1.20
  1981-1990  
1 Mcguire et al. (1988) 30.20
2 Aupperle et al. (1985) 24.70
3 Cochran and Wood (1984) 15.60
4 Epstein (1987) 5.50
5 Jones (1980) 5.40
6 Drucker (1984) 4.40
7 Spencer and Taylor (1987) 3.00
8 Zahra and Latour (1987) 2.70
9 Boal and Peery (1985) 2.20
10 Davidson and Worrell (1990) 1.80
  1991-2000  
1 McWilliams and Siegel (2000) 29.60
2 Burke and Logsdon (1996) 12.90
3 Pava and Krausz (1997) 1.50
4 Esrock and Leichty (1998) 9.60
5 Arlow (1991) 6.70
6 Quazi and O’Brien (2000) 5.00
7 Murray and Vogel (1997) 4.90
8 Clark (2000) 3.20
9 Pinkston and Carroll (1996) 2.80
10 Amba-Rao (1993) 2.40
  2001-2006
1 McWilliams and Siegel (2001) 10.70
2 Sen and Bhattacharya (2001) 8.10
3 Maignan and Ralston (2002) 3.80
4 Luo and Bhattacharya (2006) 3.30
5 Mohr et al. (2001) 3.20
6 Maignan and Ferrell (2004) 2.90
7 Lichtenstein et al. (2004) 2.90
8 Baron (2001) 2.80
9 Van Marrewijk (2003) 2.60
10 Smith (2003) 2.50
  2007-2014  
1 Campbell (2007) 5.10
2 Aguilera et al. (2007) 4.60
3 Barnett (2007) 3.10
4 Mackey et al. (2007) 2.10
5 Dahlsrud (2008) 2.00
6 Jamali and Mirshak (2007) 1.60
7 Chatterji et al. (2009) 1.40
8 Du et al. (2010) 1.30
9 Godfrey and Hatch (2007) 1.30
10 Perrini et al. (2007) 1.30

Major themes for articles published between 1970 and 2014

Period Main theme (s) Theme no.
1970-1980 Examining the attitudes and perceptions of managers towards CSR 1
1981-1990 CSR and financial performance 2
1991-2000 CSR and public relations 3
  CSR and ethics 4
2001-2006 CSR and ethics 5
  CSR and financial performance 6
  Consumer perceptions of and reactions to CSR 7
  The impact of CSR on buying behaviour and consumer behaviour
2007-2014 The relationship between CSR and corporate reputation 8
  CSR and sustainability 9
  Corporate governance and CSR 10
  Managers’ perceptions of CSR 11
  The role of stakeholders in shaping managerial perceptions of CSR 12
  The impact of CSR on consumer trust 13
  Consumers’ perception of CSR
  Consumers’ responses and reactions to CSR

The most cited authors in the field of CSR and Islam

Rank Author (s) CV
1 Brammer et al. (2007) 26.09
2 Saeed et al. (2001) 23.08
3 Dusuki (2008) 5.35
4 Dusuki and Abdullah (2007) 5.02
5 Farook and Lanis (2007) 4.68
6 Williams and Zinkin (2010) 4.68
7 Sairally (2007) 4.68
8 Dusuki and Dar (2007) 3.34
9 Siwar and Hossain (2009) 2.68
10 Farook et al. (2011) 2.34
11 Rizk (2008) 2.34
12 Ullah and Jamali (2010) 2.34

Comparisons between citation analyses (CA) 1 and 2

Themes of CA1 (CSR Field) Theme no. and period CA2 (CSR and Islam)
Managers’ perceptions of CSR 1 (1970-1980) Siwar and Hossain (2009)
11 (2007-2012)
CSR and financial performance 2 (1981-1990) Farook (2007, 2008), Hassan and Abdul-Latiff (2009), Ullah and Jamali (2010), Nor (2012), Sairally (2007), Basah and Yusuf (2013), Musibah and Alfa (2013), Rashid et al. (2013), Mallin et al. (2014)
6 (2001-2006)
CSR and ethics 4 (1991-2000) Elmelki and Ben Arab (2009), Rizk (2008), Saeed et al. (2001), Ismaeel and Blaim (2012)
5 (2001-2006)
Consumer perceptions and reactions regarding CSR 7 (2001-2006) Atan and Halim (2012), Brammer et al. (2007), Shareef et al. (2014)
13 (2007-2014)
CSR and corporate reputation 8 (2007-2014) Arshad et al. (2012)
Corporate governance and CSR 10 (2007-2014) Nathan and Ribière (2007)
Stakeholders 12 (2007-2014) Dusuki and Dar (2007), Yusoff et al. (2013)
CSR and public relations 3 (1991-2000)  NA
CSR and sustainability 9 (2007-2014)  NA

Articles representing themes in CSR

Theme and category Context Author (s) Journal CV
Theme 1
MGT Managers’ attitudes to CSR Ostlund (1977) California Management Review 40
Junior managers’ attitudes to CSR Lowes and Luffman (1977) Management Decision 2.22
Executives’ perceptions of CSR Holmes (1976) Business Horizons 57.78
Theme 2
MGT The relationship between CSR and firm’s financial performance McGuire (1988) Academy of Management 42.36
The relationship between CSR and profitability Aupperle et al. (1985) Academy of Management 34.72
CSR and financial performance Cochran and Wood (1984) Academy of Management 21.85
Government role in auditing CSR Spitzer (1981) Public Relations Review 0.27
BE and CG Evaluating CSR by analysing organisational performance Moser (1986) J. of Business Ethics 0.8
Theme 3
PR The differences between PR and CSR Clark (2000) Public Relations Review 20
Public Relations and Corporate Social Responsibility L’Etang (1994) J. of Business Ethics 13.57
Theme 4
Ethics (BE and CG) CSR, ethics and Third World governments Amba-Rao (1993) J. of Business Ethics 15
College students’ perceptions of business ethics and CSR Arlow (1991) J. of Business Ethics 42.14
Ethical CSR – a framework for managers L’Etang (1995) J. of Business Ethics 9.29
Theme 5
BE and CG CSR and the discourse of the organisational self Driver (2006) J. of Business Ethics 8.18
Ethical CSR - Considering the paradigm of industrial metabolism Korhonen (2003) J. of Business Ethics 10
Study of values, business ethics and CSR Joyner and Payne (2002) J. of Business Ethics 62.73
The ethics of corporate social responsibility and philanthropic ventures Wulfson (2001) J. of Business Ethics 19.09
Theme 6
BE and CG Finance as a driver of CSR Scholtens (2006) J. of Business Ethics 24.05
Linking financial performance of a socially responsible investment with CSR Mill (2006) J. of Business Ethics 17.72
CSR and long-term compensation Mahoney and Thorne (2005) J. of Business Ethics 27.85
MGT Using CSR as insurance for financial performance Peloza (2006) California Management Review 30.38
Theme 7
MKT CSR, customer satisfaction, and market value Luo and Bhattacharya (2006) J. of Marketing 12.8
The impact of perceived CSR on consumer behaviour Becker-Olsen et al. (2006) J. of Business Research 7.9
The effects of CSR and price on consumer responses Mohr and Webb (2005) J. of Consumer Affairs 5.8
The effect of CSR on customer donations Lichtenstein et al. (2004) J. of Marketing 11.4
Consumers’ attributions to socially responsible brands Klein and Dawar (2004) International Journal of Research in Marketing 8.3
CSR from consumer perspective Klein (2004) Advances in Consumer Research 0
Consumer evaluation of community attachment CSR Handelman and Bello (2004) Advances in Consumer Research 0.1
The impact of CSR on buying behaviour Mohr et al. (2001) J. of Consumer Affairs 12.7
Consumer reactions to CSR Sen and Bhattacharya (2001) J. of Marketing Research 31.7
BE and CG Influence of CSR on loyalty and valuation of services Salmones et al. (2005) J. of Business Ethics 1.7
Consumers’ perceptions of CSR Maignan (2001) J. of Business Ethics 7.4
Students’ perception of CSR Elias (2004) J. of Business Ethics 0.2
Theme 8
BE and CG The advertising effects of CSR on corporate reputation and brand equity Hsu (2012) J. of Business Ethics 0
Corporate reputation and CSR Melo and Garrido-Morgado (2012) CSR and Environmental Management 3.8
Positive impact of CSR on corporate reputation Lii and Lee (2012) J. of Business Ethics 3.8
The impact of board diversity and gender composition on CSR and firm reputation Bear et al. (2010) J. of Business Ethics 15.33
The effects of CSR on brand performance Lai et al. (2010) J. of Business Ethics 7.64
MGT Reputation Effects between CSR and Corporate Political Activity den Hond et al. (2014) Journal of Management Studies 0.3
Customer satisfaction and its effect on corporate reputation and financial performance Galbreath and Shum (2012) Australian Journal of Management 0
Reputation and CSR aberrations, trends, and hypocrisy Janney and Gove (2011) J. of Management Studies 0
CSR as reputation insurance Minor and Morgan (2011) California Management Review 0
MKT The role of institutional and reputational factors in the voluntary adoption of CSR Nikolaeva and Bicho (2011) Academy of Marketing Science 7.65
Corporate insider perspectives on reputation and the bottom line Duhe (2009) Public Relation Review 11.51
Theme 9
BE and CG CSR and environmental sustainability Orlitzky et al. (2011) Business and Society 12.73
CSR, sustainability and the meaning of global reporting Perez-Batres et al. (2010) J. of Business Ethics 3.64
The potential of CSR to support the implementation of the EU sustainability strategy Moon et al. (2009) Business Ethics: a European Review 0
Sustainability-driven implementation of CSR Kleine and Von Hauff (2009) J. of Business Ethics 7.27
CSR and environmental sustainability Edoho (2008) CSR and Environmental Management 9.09
Ethics, CSR, and sustainability education in the Financial Times top 50 global business schools Christensen et al. (2007) J. of Business Ethics 52.73
MGT Sustainability reporting and CSR Steurer and Konrad (2009) Scandinavian Journal of Management 14.55
Theme 10
BE and CG The causal effect of corporate governance on CSR Jo and Harjoto (2012) J. of Business Ethics 0
Corporate governance and firm value Jo and Harjoto (2011) J. of Business Ethics 8.89
Corporate governance and CSR nexus Harjoto and Jo (2011) J. of Business Ethics 13.33
Corporate governance and CSR Arora and Dharwadkar (2011) Corporate Governance: an International Review 6.67
The integration of corporate governance in corporate social responsibility disclosures Kolk and Pinkse (2010) CSR and Environmental Management 8.89
Sensemaking of social issues in management by authorities and CEOs Fassin and Van Rossem (2009) Corporate Governance: an International Review 8.89
Corporate governance and CSR synergies and interrelationships Jamali et al. (2008) Corporate Governance: an International Review 51.11
MGT CSR, corporate governance, and financial performance Neal and Cochran (2008) Business Horizons 2.22
Theme 11
BE and CG The important of CEOs in CSR practices Godos-Díez et al. (2011) J. of Business Ethics 0
Managers understanding of businesses’ responsibility towards the society Pedersen (2010) J. of Business Ethics 4.55
Management perceptions of the impact of CSR on organisational performance Rettab et al. (2009) J. of Business Ethics 36.36
The perceptions of CSR held by different managerial groups Hine and Preuss (2009) J. of Business Ethics 18.18
Managerial CSR perspectives Jamali et al. (2009) J. of Business Ethics 13.64
Managers’ perceptions of corporate ethics and social responsibility Cacioppe et al. (2008) J. of Business Ethics 27.27
Theme 12
BE and CG Techniques of Stakeholder Management and Political CSR Fooks et al. (2013) J. of Business Ethics 3.42
Stakeholder perspectives on CSR Yakovleva and Vazquez-Brust (2012) J. of Business Ethics 0
CSR and shareholder wealth Clacher and Hagendorff (2012) J. of Business Ethics 0
How CSR information influences stakeholders’ intentions Alniacik et al. (2011) CSR and Environmental Management 0.43
CSR as a conflict between shareholders Barnea and Rubin (2010) J. of Business Ethics 6.41
Stakeholders’ perceptions of CSR Tsoi (2010) J. of Business Ethics 0.85
CSR and the priority of shareholders Hsieh (2009) J. of Business Ethics 0
Strengthening stakeholder-company relationships through CSR Bhattacharya (2009) J. of Business Ethics 12.25
Workers’ participation in CSR Yu (2009) J. of Business Ethics 0.85
Stakeholder engagement and CSR Prado-Lorenzo et al. (2009) CSR and Environmental Management 4.7
Models and theories in stakeholder dialogue and CSR O’Riordan and Fairbrass (2008) J. of Business Ethics 5.98
A stakeholder approach to CSR Jamali (2008) J. of Business Ethics 14.1
MGT Stakeholder influence on capacity and the variability of financial returns to CSR Barnett (2007) Academy of Management Review 42.31
MKT Generating global brand equity through corporate social responsibility to key stakeholders Torres et al. (2012) Journal of Research in Marketing 0
Theme 13
BE The role of CSR in consumption decisions Oeberseder et al. (2011) J. of Business Ethics 0
The influence of CSR and price fairness on customer behaviour Matute-Vallejo et al. (2011) CSR and Environmental Management 0
Purchase intention during product-harm crises Lin et al. (2011) J. of Business Ethics 0.75
Consumer perceptions consequences of CSR Stanaland et al. (2011) J. of Business Ethics 1.4
Consumer responses to CSR Tian et al. (2011) J. of Business Ethics 0.75
Longitudinal effects of CSR on customer relationships Lacey and Kennett-Hensel (2010) J. of Business Ethics 0
Consumer reactions to CSR Carvalho et al. (2010) J. of Business Ethics 0.75
Consumers’ perception of CSR Ramasamy and Yeung (2009) J. of Business Ethics 6.2
Assessing the prerequisite of successful CSR implementation Pomering and Dolnicar (2009) J. of Business Ethics 9.33
CSR and consumer trust Castaldo et al. (2009) J. of Business Ethics 11.64
The effects of CSR on consumer behaviour Marin et al. (2009) J. of Business Ethics 15.6
CSR and product perceptions in consumer markets Singh et al. (2008) J. of Business Ethics 7.98
CSR and consumer trust Pivato et al. (2008) Business Ethics: a European Review 11.69
MKT CSR performance on customer-based brand preference Liu et al. (2014) J. of Services Marketing 0
The impact of CSR on customer trust Choi and La (2013) J. of Services Marketing 0.07
CSR and consumers’ behavioural intentions Kolkailah et al. (2012) International Journal of Consumer Studies 0
The influence of CSR on purchasing behaviour Marquina and Morales (2012) International Marketing Review 0
Customer loyalty and CSR Mandhachitara and Poolthong (2011) J. of Service Marketing 0.76
Consumers’ responses to CSR Lee and Shin (2010) PR Review 2.31
Consumer reactions to CSR initiatives Russell and Russell (2010) Marketing Letters 3.87
Consumers’ perception of CSR Arli and Lasmono (2010) International Journal of Consumer Studies 3.1
Consumers’ responses to CSR activities Wigley (2008) PR Review 5.44
The role of brand-cause fit in cause-related marketing Nan and Heo (2007) J. of Advertising 17.94
Note:

BE – Business Ethics; CG – Corporate Governance; PR – Public Relations; MGT – Management; MKT – Marketing

Articles representing themes in CSR and Islam

Theme and context Author (s) Journal CV
Theme 1
CSR disclosure in Islamic banks Yusoff et al. (2013) Procedia Economics and Finance 6.06
Hassan and Harahap (2010) International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management 12.1
Farook and Lanis (2007) Advances in Islamic Economics and Finance 42.4
Farook et al. (2011) Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research 21.2
Corporate social responsibility disclosure Hassan et al. (2012) International Journal of Learning and Development 0
Corporate social disclosure in Libya Pratten and Mashat (2009) Social Responsibility Journal 15.2
Narrative disclosure of CSR in Islamic financial institutions Aribi and Gao (2011) Managerial Auditing Journal 0
CSR disclosure in Islamic financial institutions Aribi and Gao (2010) Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting 3.03
Theme 2
CSR and financial performance Mallinet al. (2014) Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 9.09
CSR in Islamic Bank Basah and Yusuf (2013) European Journal of Business and Management 6.82
Impact of intellectual capital on CSR Musibah and Alfa (2013) International Journal of Finance and Accounting 2.27
A framework for Islamic banks on ethical efficiency Rashid et al. (2013) Management Research Review  4.55
Integrating morals in a dynamic model of CSR Nor (2012) Asian and African Area Studies 0
Institutional investors and CSR Ullah and Jamali (2010) International Review of Business Research Papers 15.9
CSR of Islamic financial institutions and businesses Hassan and Abdul-Latiff (2009) Humanomics 13.6
CSR for Islamic financial institutions Farook (2008) Journal of Islamic Economics, Banking and Finance 2.27
Socially responsible investment funds Sairally (2007) Advances in Islamic Economics and Finance 31.8
CSR of Islamic financial institutions Farook (2007) Islamic Economic Studies 13.6
Theme 3
Responsible halal business Ismaeel and Blaim (2012) Journal of Management Development 0
Ethical investment and CSR Elmelki and Ben Arab (2009) International Business Research 5
Islamic perspective on business and work ethics Rizk (2008) Social Responsibility Journal 8.75
International marketing ethics from an Islamic perspective Saeed et al. (2001) Journal of Business Ethics 86.3
Theme 4
CSR and Islamic marketing Koku and Savas (2014) Journal of Islamic Marketing 0
Developing an Islamic CSR model Khurshid et al. (2014) Competitiveness Review 0
Islamic roots of CSR in the Middle East Darrag and El-Bassiouny (2013) Social Responsibility Journal 0
Islam and CSR: A study of the compatibility between the tenets of Islam and the UN global compact Williams and Zinkin (2010) Journal of Business Ethics 46.7
Corporate social responsibility: contemporary thought and Islamic perspectives Khan and Karim (2010) Thoughts on Economics 0
What does Islam say about corporate social responsibility? Dusuki (2008) International Association for Islamic Economics 53.3

Appendix 1

Table AI

Appendix 2

Table AII

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Further reading

Abou-Youssef, M.M.H., Kortam, W., Abou-Aish, E. and El-Bassiouny, N. (2015), “Effects of religiosity on consumer attitudes toward Islamic banking in Egypt”, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 33 No. 6, pp. 786-807.

Bhattacharya, C., Korschun, D. and Sen, S. (2009), “Strengthening stakeholder–company relationships through mutually beneficial corporate social responsibility initiatives”, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 85 No. S2, pp. 257-272.

Jones, T. (1995), “Instrumental stakeholder theory: a synthesis of ethics and economics”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 20 No. 2, pp. 404-437.

Corresponding author

Mohammad Nurunnabi can be contacted at: mnurunnabi@psu.edu.sa