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Mitigating asset misappropriation through integrity and fraud risk elements: Evidence emerging economies

Haniza Hanim Mustafa Bakri (Department of Accounting, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kajang, Malaysia)
Norazida Mohamed (Department of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Kota Bharu, Malaysia)
Jamaliah Said (Accounting Research Institute, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia)

Journal of Financial Crime

ISSN: 1359-0790

Article publication date: 2 May 2017




This paper aims to evaluate the effects of fraud risk elements and integrity on asset misappropriation in the Royal Malaysian Police (RMP). In addition, this research also examines whether integrity moderates the relationship between fraud risk elements and asset misappropriation.


Data are gathered from the responses of the questionnaires distributed to the RMP. A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed based on simple random selection from five RMP centres in the capital city. Out of 200 questionnaires distributed, only 189 were returned.


The findings indicate that the existence of fraud risk elements significantly affects the incident of asset misappropriation. An interesting finding was made that integrity is negatively related to asset misappropriation. This implies that integrity is an important value in minimising the occurrence of asset misappropriation. The results also indicate that minimising fraud risk elements is crucial in reducing the incident of asset misappropriation.


This present paper contributes to the literature by investigating a commonly proposed but underexplored elements of integrity in mitigating fraud. Incorporating integrity and fraud risk elements simultaneously in a single framework in context of RMP would enhance the understanding and will be able to provide a framework for practitioners on how to mitigate the incident of fraud.



Mustafa Bakri, H.H., Mohamed, N. and Said, J. (2017), "Mitigating asset misappropriation through integrity and fraud risk elements: Evidence emerging economies", Journal of Financial Crime, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 242-255.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2017, Emerald Publishing Limited

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