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Knowledge-sharing practices in higher educational institutes of Islamabad, Pakistan: an empirical study based on theory of planned behavior

Irfan Raza (National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan) (Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia)
Zainudin Awang (Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia)

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education

ISSN: 2050-7003

Article publication date: 25 July 2020

Issue publication date: 4 May 2021



Knowledge hoarding is an emerging issue among multiracial employees engaged in public sector higher educational institutes (HEIs) of Islamabad, Pakistan. By considering knowledge-sharing barriers, this study aims to examine the knowledge sharing behavior (KSB) of ethnically diverse public sector staff in perspective of well-known theory of planned behavior (TPB).


It is a cross-sectional survey study, and it has used a self-administered questionnaire for data collection. With proportionate stratified random sampling technique, 273 nonacademic employees associated in 15 public sector HEIs of Islamabad have recorded their responses. Structural equation modeling was employed for empirical hypotheses testing.


Results stated significant and positive effect of cultural diversity management, interpersonal trust and knowledge technology on KSB. Moreover, knowledge-sharing attitude (KSA) fully mediated the relationship between cultural diversity management and KSB and between interpersonal trust and KSB; whereas KSA partially mediated the relationship between knowledge technology and KSB. Moreover, proposed model has explained 45% variation in endogenous construct.

Research limitations/implications

Current study contributes to the present literature by investigating the antecedents of knowledge-sharing behavior of multicultural nonacademic staff engaged in public sector HEIs of capital city of Pakistan. Enriching the top management thoughts about problems of diverse workforce, the researcher has explored a noticeable lack in elucidation of such connection. Moreover, formation of knowledge-sharing behavior specifically on ethnic-based diverse employees made a significant addition in existing literature.

Practical implications

The present research aids academic leadership in designing policies and strategies to enhance knowledge sharing among public sector employees and to create a supportive knowledge-sharing culture.


This study fills the empirical gap in literature by exploring the antecedents and their effect on KSB of nonacademic employees of Islamabad, Pakistan. Moreover, assessing the mediation effect of KSA between CDM and KSB on multicultural public sector employees is another novel inclusion in literature.



Raza, I. and Awang, Z. (2021), "Knowledge-sharing practices in higher educational institutes of Islamabad, Pakistan: an empirical study based on theory of planned behavior", Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, Vol. 13 No. 2, pp. 466-484.



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