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Consumers' continuance intention to use fitness and health apps: an integration of the expectation–confirmation model and investment model

Weisheng Chiu (Lee Shau Kee School of Business and Administration, Open University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong)
Heetae Cho (Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore)
Christina G. Chi (School of Hospitality Business Management, Carson College of Business, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA) (School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa)

Information Technology & People

ISSN: 0959-3845

Article publication date: 26 June 2020

Issue publication date: 24 May 2021




This study aimed to explore consumers' continuance intention to use a fitness and health app by applying two theoretical models: the expectation–confirmation model (ECM) and the investment model (IM).


An online survey was administered to consumers who are currently using fitness and health apps (N = 342). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted using Amos 22.0 software to examine the hypothesized relationships in the research model.


Results revealed that users' continuance intention was significantly predicted by the two models. Within the ECM, the positive and significant relationships among variables were found. Moreover, users' satisfaction and investment size had positive impacts on their commitment, which, in turn, positively affected the intention. Also, confirmation of expectations had a positive impact on investment size.


The integrated model helps better understand fitness and health app users' decision-making process from the perspective of relationship commitment and suggests practical implications for health and fitness app providers.



The first author would like to thank the Institute of International Business and Governance, established with the partial support of a grant from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (UGC/ IDS16/17), for its support.


Chiu, W., Cho, H. and Chi, C.G. (2021), "Consumers' continuance intention to use fitness and health apps: an integration of the expectation–confirmation model and investment model", Information Technology & People, Vol. 34 No. 3, pp. 978-998.



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