Trajectory planning for a planar macro-micro manipulator of a laser-cutting machine

Emre Uzunoglu (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Izmir, Turkey)
Mehmet Ismet Can Dede (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Izmir, Turkey)
Gökhan Kiper (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Izmir, Turkey)

Industrial Robot

ISSN: 0143-991x

Publication date: 15 August 2016



In the industry, there is always a demand to shorten the task completion durations to maximize the efficiency of the operation. This work focuses on making use of a special type of kinematic redundancy, macro–micro manipulation, to minimize the task completion duration. The purpose of this paper is to develop the most convenient trajectory planner to be integrated with industrial computerized numerical control (CNC) systems to resolve kinematic redundancy for task duration minimization.


A special type of kinematic redundancy is devised by using two kinematically different mechanisms that have different advantages, which are named as macro and micro mechanisms. In this case, the control design including the trajectory planning should be devised taking into account the distinct advantages of both mechanisms. A new trajectory planning algorithm is designed and used for the constructed planar laser-cutting machine, and some benchmark pieces are cut.


Offline method has practical limitations for employment in a real case scenario such as assuming infinite jerk limits for each axis motion. This limitation was removed by using an online trajectory generation technique. Experimental test results indicate that the online trajectory planning technique developed for the macro–micro mechanism to shorten the task duration was successful.

Practical implications

Although the new trajectory planning algorithm is implemented for a laser-cutting machine, it can also be used for other manufacturing systems that require higher acceleration and accuracy levels than the conventional machines. The new algorithm is compatible with the commercially available CNC systems.


In this work, a new approach to reducing the task duration for planar machining operations was introduced by making use of macro–micro manipulation concept. The core novelty of the work is devising trajectory planning algorithms to get the most efficiency in terms of acceleration limits from a macro–micro manipulation while making these algorithms deployable to most of the CNC systems.



This study is granted by Republic of Turkey Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology and Coşkunöz Metal Form Inc. (Project code: 01,668.STZ.2012-2). The authors thank to Coşkunöz who provided the test equipment and Mr Ercan Mastar from Coşkunöz for his collaboration and valuable support.


Uzunoglu, E., Dede, M.I.C. and Kiper, G. (2016), "Trajectory planning for a planar macro-micro manipulator of a laser-cutting machine", Industrial Robot, Vol. 43 No. 5, pp. 513-523.

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