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The beginning of ChatGPT – a systematic and bibliometric review of the literature

Hasnan Baber (School of Business Administration, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates)
Kiran Nair (College of Business, Abu Dhabi University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates)
Ruchi Gupta (Department of Commerce Shaheed Bhagat Singh College, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India)
Kuldeep Gurjar (Department of Computer Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea)

Information and Learning Sciences

ISSN: 2398-5348

Article publication date: 28 November 2023




This paper aims to present a systematic literature review and bibliometric analysis of research papers published on chat generative pre-trained transformer (ChatGPT), an OpenAI-developed large-scale generative language model. The study’s objective is to provide a comprehensive assessment of the present status of research on ChatGPT and identify current trends and themes in the literature.


A total of 328 research article data was extracted from Scopus for bibliometric analysis, to investigate publishing trends, productive countries and keyword analysis around the topic and 34 relevant research publications were selected for an in-depth systematic literature review.


The findings indicate that ChatGPT research is still in its early stages, with the current emphasis on applications such as natural language processing and understanding, dialogue systems, speech processing and recognition, learning systems, chatbots and response generation. The USA is at the forefront of publishing on this topic and new keywords, e.g. “patient care”, “medical”, “higher education” and so on are emerging themes around the topic.

Research limitations/implications

These findings underscore the importance of ongoing research and development to address these limitations and ensure that ChatGPT is used responsibly and ethically. While systematic review research on ChatGPT heralds exciting opportunities, it also demands a careful understanding of its nuances to harness its potential effectively.


Overall, this study provides a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners interested in ChatGPT at this early stage and helps to identify the grey areas around this topic.



Authors’ contributions: The authors worked together on the manuscript equally. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Competing of interest: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Funding: No funding available.

Availability of data and materials: “Not applicable”


Baber, H., Nair, K., Gupta, R. and Gurjar, K. (2023), "The beginning of ChatGPT – a systematic and bibliometric review of the literature", Information and Learning Sciences, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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