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TOURQUAL scale: psychometric properties and internal structure validation

Tiago Savi Mondo (Department of Tourism, Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil)
Sandro Medeiros (Federal University of Alagoas, Maceio, Brazil)
Erose Sthapit (Department of Marketing, International Business and Tourism, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK; Centre for Research and Innovation in Tourism (CRiT), Taylor’s University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; School of Business, Woxsen University, Hyderabad, India; UCSI Graduate Business School, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; HANKEN School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland; Faculty of Social Sciences and Business Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland and School of Hotel Management and Tourism, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, India)
Lara Brunelle Almeida Freitas (Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil)
Peter Björk (Department of Marketing, Hanken School of Economics, Vaasa, Finland)

International Journal of Tourism Cities

ISSN: 2056-5607

Article publication date: 18 April 2024




This study aims to focus on assessing the psychometric properties necessary to validate the internal structure of the TOURQUAL scale.


A quantitative research study was conducted in collaboration with the Brazilian Network of Tourism Observatories, comprising 927 respondents surveyed between October 2021 and May 2022. The data analysis involved the application of descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis, in alignment with the principles outlined in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing 2014 to validate the scale.


The findings of this study validate the TOURQUAL scale as a robust tool for assessing the perceived quality of tourist services, with results demonstrating one-dimensionality and replicability.


To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to assess the psychometric properties for validating the internal structure of the TOURQUAL scale.



Mondo, T.S., Medeiros, S., Sthapit, E., Freitas Almeida Freitas, L.B.A. and Björk, P. (2024), "TOURQUAL scale: psychometric properties and internal structure validation", International Journal of Tourism Cities, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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Copyright © 2024, International Tourism Studies Association

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