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Validation of product quality through graphical interpretation of the Kano model: An explorative study

Peter Madzík (Department of Management, Katolicka Univerzita , Ruzomberok, Slovakia)
Vera Pelantová (Institute of Mechatronics and Computer Engineering, Technicka univerzita v Liberci , Liberec, Czech Republic)

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management

ISSN: 0265-671X

Article publication date: 1 October 2018




Product verification and validation are integral to quality management. Product verification means verifying the conformity between a product’s actual and planned characteristics whereas validation means determining whether and to what extent it satisfies customers’ requirements. One of the key forms of product validation is testing with a group of customers. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a graphical method of product validation based on the Kano model.


The approach is based on a proposed method for categorising requirements based on a Kano questionnaire and then applies this method for the validation of a product – a website. The proposed method is based on three steps: graphical determination of requirements in a Kano model; determination of requirement fulfilment degree and prioritisation of corrective measures and improvements.


The study opens space for discussion of the potential for improving a product and methods for identifying critical faults in products. The proposed method also permits an assessment of the potential effectiveness of an improvement because it is able to quantify the effect of the product on the consumer resulting from a given quantity of effort. A case study demonstrated that the resulting priority of corrective measures and improvements was affected not only by the level of fulfilment of the requirements but also by the type, the most critical being non-fulfilment of must-be requirements.

Research limitations/implications

The requirement curves are based on a verbal assessment of satisfaction in two states – if the requirement were fulfilled and if it were not fulfilled. The values of the start and end points may not be precise and could be affected by the natural character of subjective variables.

Practical implications

The proposed method is particularly suited to the initial testing of a product that is intended to lead to measures to eliminate customer dissatisfaction or increase their satisfaction – that is, to improve the product. The method also permits an assessment of the extent to which customers feel that their expectations have been satisfied and the effect that will be felt if the organisation decides to increase fulfilment.


The Kano model has not yet been applied to product validation, although it contains all the information necessary for this task. Knowing how satisfied customers are is an important part of product validation. At the same time, knowing a mechanism for “creating” this satisfaction is also very valuable information.



Madzík, P. and Pelantová, V. (2018), "Validation of product quality through graphical interpretation of the Kano model: An explorative study", International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 35 No. 9, pp. 1956-1975.



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