This study examines distinctive economic reform measures pursued in post-independent Zambia and ethical problems which plagued the reform process. The study begins with a review of the philosophy of Zambian Humanism, the ideology which guided Zambia’s early reform initiatives. Specific reform measures pursued within the framework of humanism focused on: increased state control of the economy; indigenization of the public and private sectors, accelerated development of the rural sector, and use of a series of policy measures to curb domestic exploitation. Beginning in the mid-1980s, deepening economic crisis forced the government to retract most humanist-based reform measures in favor of World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) induced reforms within the framework of structural adjustment and economic liberalization. Post-Humanism reform initiatives built on previous World Bank and IMF formulated framework, but stalled due in part to increase in ethical misbehavior in higher levels of government.
Sekwat, A. (2000), "Beyond african humanism: Economic reform in post-independent zambia", International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, Vol. 3 No. 3/4, pp. 521-546. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJOTB-03-03-04-2000-B013
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