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Glasgow climate pact and the global clean energy index constituent stocks

Dharen Kumar Pandey (P. G. Department of Commerce, Magadh University, Bodh Gaya, India)
Rahul Kumar (Indian Institute of Management Sambalpur, Sambalpur, India)
Vineeta Kumari (P. G. Department of Commerce, Magadh University, Bodh Gaya, India)

International Journal of Emerging Markets

ISSN: 1746-8809

Article publication date: 9 January 2023




This study examined the impact of the Glasgow Climate Pact on the abnormal returns of global clean energy stocks. Further, this study examines which country-specific and firm-specific variables drive the cumulative abnormal returns (CARs) of clean energy stocks.


The authors used the event study method and cross-sectional multivariate regression model. The clean energy stocks in this study are limited to 81 constituent firms of the S&P Global Clean Energy Index across 17 nations. The final sample includes 80 firms and the sample period ranges from January 26, 2021, to December 07, 2021.


The study finds that the Glasgow Climate Pact negatively affects the stock returns of clean energy firms. Moreover, the climate change performance index (CCPI) positively impacts cumulative abnormal returns (CARs), signifying that clean energy investors react positively to firms in nations with good CCPI scores. The environmental, social and governance (ESG) measure for the shorter window (−1, +1) exhibited a negative relationship with CARs. The firm-specific variables (BTM, stock liquidity, size and past returns) exhibit a negative relationship with CARs in different event windows.

Research limitations/implications

The authors use the CCPI as a proxy for the stringency of environmental policies in any nation. The authors extend the existing literature by employing firm-specific variables and supporting previous findings. Their findings have policy implications for clean energy investors, policymakers and other market participants.

Practical implications

Climate risks impact the global financial market, so the findings have implications for global regulatory bodies. Currently, there are bankruptcy cases due to climate risks. Because financial markets must play a critical role in shifting the economy toward a green one, regulators can use the cross-sectional drivers of this study to shape policy. It is also critical for regulators to reduce stock price volatility in the event of the implementation of environmental regulations and improve environmental disclosures by publicly traded companies. Furthermore, governments are interested in researching the effects of environmental regulations to protect stakeholders' interests. These regulations significantly impact emerging markets because they lack the same solid institutional frameworks as developed markets.


The authors provide evidence that firms with better ESG scores and larger firm sizes have experienced fewer abnormal returns, as these firms have stable financial and non-financial fundamentals. This timely study on the ongoing regulatory shift in environmental policy will help investors, policymakers, firms and other stakeholders make relevant decisions.



Pandey, D.K., Kumar, R. and Kumari, V. (2023), "Glasgow climate pact and the global clean energy index constituent stocks", International Journal of Emerging Markets, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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