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Converting values awareness to values enactment through frame-of-reference training

Grant O’Neill (Curtin Business School, Curtin University, Perth, Australia)
Antonio Travaglione (Curtin Business School, Curtin University, Perth, Australia)
Steven McShane (UWA Business School, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia)
Justin Hancock (Curtin Business School, Curtin University, Perth, Australia)
Joshua Chang (Curtin Business School, Curtin University, Perth, Australia)

International Journal of Organizational Analysis

ISSN: 1934-8835

Article publication date: 10 July 2017




This paper aims to investigate whether values enactment could be increased through frame-of-reference (FOR) training configured around values prototyping and behavioural domain training for managers within an Australian public sector organisation.


Employees from an Australian public sector organisation were studied to ascertain the effect of values training and development via a three-way longitudinal design with a control group.


The findings indicate that FOR training can increase employee values enactment clarity and, thereby, have a positive impact upon organisational values enactment.

Practical implications

The application of FOR training constitutes a new approach to supporting the development of employee values clarity, which, in turn, can support the achievement of organisational values enactment. Through FOR training, employees can learn to apply organisational values in their decision-making and other behaviours irrespective of whether they are highly congruent with their personal values.


Empirical research into values management is limited and there is a lack of consensus to what is needed to create a values-driven organisation. The article shows that FOR training can be a beneficial component of a broader human resource strategy aimed at increasing organisational values enactment. With reference to the resource-based view of the firm, it is argued that values enactment constitutes a distinctive capability that may confer sustained organisational advantage.



O’Neill, G., Travaglione, A., McShane, S., Hancock, J. and Chang, J. (2017), "Converting values awareness to values enactment through frame-of-reference training", International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. 25 No. 3, pp. 536-558.



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