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Drowning in silence: a scale development and validation of quiet quitting and quiet firing

Amitabh Anand (Excelia Business School, La Rochelle, France)
Jessica Doll (E. Craig Wall Sr. College of Business Administration, Coastal Carolina University, Conway, South Carolina, USA)
Prantika Ray (Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode, Kozhikode, India)

International Journal of Organizational Analysis

ISSN: 1934-8835

Article publication date: 8 June 2023

Issue publication date: 5 April 2024




This study aims to develop and validate two scales: quiet quitting (QQ), measuring individual-level work disengagement, low organisational commitment and not going above and beyond in work, and quiet firing (QF), measuring employee perceptions of the degree to which their managers devalue them and when organisations intentionally create a situation to make them quit.


The scale development process involved item generation through literature search, review and interviews with working executives. The scales were then tested online by 264 participants from India.


In the quantitative analysis, the QQ and QF scales have good psychometric properties when tested with factor analysis, reliability analysis and Cronbach’s alpha. Furthermore, the convergent, discriminant and predictive validity of outcome constructs also showed significance.


This study found that the QQ and QF scales are highly reliable and exhibit good psychometric properties. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the first studies to empirically develop and test the QQ and QF constructs and offer implications for organisations and managers.



Anand, A., Doll, J. and Ray, P. (2024), "Drowning in silence: a scale development and validation of quiet quitting and quiet firing", International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. 32 No. 4, pp. 721-743.



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