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Green Lean Six Sigma sustainability – oriented project selection and implementation framework for manufacturing industry

Mahender Singh Kaswan (School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, India)
Rajeev Rathi (School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, India)
Jose Arturo Garza-Reyes (Centre for Supply Chain Improvement, The University of Derby, Derby, UK)
Jiju Antony (Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates)

International Journal of Lean Six Sigma

ISSN: 2040-4166

Article publication date: 16 May 2022

Issue publication date: 31 January 2023




This paper aims to deal with the selection of the sustainability-oriented Green Lean Six Sigma (GLS) project for the manufacturing industry in the complex decision-making environment. Moreover, the study also proposes a GLS implementation framework for improved organizational performance.


GLS project selection has been done based on the six sustainability-oriented criteria formed from 17 sub-criteria (found from the literature and developed by authors). The weights of the criteria have been determined through the entropy method. The projects have been ranked based on the criteria through the advanced decision-making approach: grey relation analysis (GRA). The results of the study were validated using best worst method and sensitivity analysis.


It has been found that the productivity-related criterion is the most significant among other criteria with entropy weight of 0.2721. GRA has been used in this research work to rank the potential GLS projects in a manufacturing industry based on six sustainability criteria, to select a project that exhibits the maximum potential for sustainable improvement. The machine shop has been found as the most significant GLS project with grey relation grade of 0.4742.

Practical implications

The present study facilitates practitioners and industrial managers to implement an inclusive GLS approach for improved sustainability dynamics through effective GLS project selection and implementation framework.


With increased globalized competition in recent times, new projects are being considered as the foundation stone for organizational success. The decision-making becomes quite complex to select an effective project due to the intriguing nature of various criteria, sub-criteria and different aspects of sustainability. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the present study is the first of its kind that provides ways for the selection of sustainability-oriented GLS projects.



Authors are thankful to the management and director of HTL Enterprises Limited, Rohtak, Haryana, India for conduction of this research work and providing suitable ambiance and motivation for the same.


Kaswan, M.S., Rathi, R., Garza-Reyes, J.A. and Antony, J. (2023), "Green Lean Six Sigma sustainability – oriented project selection and implementation framework for manufacturing industry", International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, Vol. 14 No. 1, pp. 33-71.



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