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Factors influencing time allocation of sport event volunteers

Kirstin Hallmann (German Sport University, Cologne, Germany)
Paul Downward (School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK)
Geoff Dickson (La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia)

International Journal of Event and Festival Management

ISSN: 1758-2954

Article publication date: 8 August 2018

Issue publication date: 17 October 2018




Given the increasing demands placed on a sport event workforce in servicing the needs of spectators, to attract and recruit volunteers to the industry, it is important for sport event managers to know what is driving how much time volunteers allocate to an event. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the individual and macro-level factors influencing the allocation of time to volunteer at sport events.


Survey data were collected from volunteers at 25 sport events (n=2,303). Multi-level modelling was used to identify common effects controlling for event differences.


Male gender significantly influences time allocated to an event at the individual level. At the macro-level, the number of local inhabitants has a significant negative effect whereas the status of an international event and duration contribute positively to time allocation.

Research limitations/implications

The results provide clear evidence that macro-level variables can stimulate interest in event volunteering opportunities.


This paper uses a multi-level approach to assess the influence of micro- and macro-level variables on time allocation by sport event volunteers. Using this approach, event heterogeneity can be controlled.



Hallmann, K., Downward, P. and Dickson, G. (2018), "Factors influencing time allocation of sport event volunteers", International Journal of Event and Festival Management, Vol. 9 No. 3, pp. 316-331.



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