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Cost and environmental performance of forced air and hot water heating systems in post-Soviet countries

Begmyrat Kulmedov (Civil Engineering, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria)
Serdar Durdyev (Engineering and Architectural Studies, Ara Institute of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand)

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation

ISSN: 2398-4708

Article publication date: 26 July 2021

Issue publication date: 8 March 2023




The aim of the present study is to assess the selected heating systems (furnace and boiler) commonly used in the dwellings of seven post-USSR (the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) countries. The systems were assessed in terms of their cost and environmental performance, with natural gas and electricity used as the main source of energy.


The cost-effectiveness and environmental performance of the selected heating systems that have been commonly used in the selected post-USSR countries was assessed. Current energy (natural gas and electricity) prices that are applied in those countries were used.


Results show that the furnace is the cheapest option, while natural gas is the cheapest source of energy, despite its high price in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. Both heating systems could be considered eco-friendly options, although their efficiencies need to be considered at the design stage. Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, which are the top natural gas producers, offer natural gas for the selected heating systems as both cost-effective and eco-friendly options.

Practical implications

A considerable reduction in electricity consumption and less harm to our environment can be achieved through the systems used in residential buildings in the region.


The outcomes of the present study offer value (in terms of cost-effective and eco-friendly options) for the end-users in the region.



Kulmedov, B. and Durdyev, S. (2023), "Cost and environmental performance of forced air and hot water heating systems in post-Soviet countries", International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, Vol. 41 No. 1, pp. 170-181.



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