Natural convection heat transfer of nanofluid inside a cavity containing rough elements using lattice Boltzmann method

Rasul Mohebbi (School of Engineering, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran)
Mohsen Izadi (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran)
Nor Azwadi Che Sidik (Malaysia – Japan International Institute of Technology (MJIIT), University Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
Gholamhassan Najafi (Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran)

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow

ISSN: 0961-5539

Publication date: 19 June 2019



This paper aims to study the natural convection of a nanofluid inside a cavity which contains obstacles using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The results have focused mainly on various parameters such as number and aspect ratio of roughness elements and different nanoparticle volume fraction. The isotherms and streamlines are presented to describe the hydrodynamics and thermal behaviors of the nanofluid flow throughout the enclosure.


The methodology of this paper consists of mathematical model, statement of the problem, nanofluid thermophysical properties, lattice Boltzmann method, LBM for fluid flow, LBM for heat transfer, numerical strategy, boundary conditions, Nusselt (Nu) number calculation, code validation and grid independence.


Natural convection heat transfers of a nanofluid inside cavities with and without rough elements have been studied. Lattice Boltzmann technique has been used as numerical approach. The results showed that at higher Rayleigh number (Ra = 106), there are denser streamlines near the left (source) and right wall (sink) which results in better cooling and enhances convective heat rejection to the heat sink. After a distinctive aspect ratio of rough elements (A =0.1), change in streamline pattern which arises from increasing of aspect ratio does not have an important effect on isotherms. Results indicate that for lower Rayleigh number (Ra =103), no variation in average Nu is observed with increasing in number of roughness, while for higher one (Ra = 106) average Nu decreases from N = 0 (smooth cavity) up to N = 4 and then remains constant (N = 6).


Currently, no argumentative and comprehensive extraction can be concluded without fully understanding the role of different arrangement of roughness. Some geometrical parameters such as aspect ratio, number and position of rough elements have been considered. Also, the effect of nanoparticle concentration was studied at different Ra number. Briefly, using LBM, this paper aims to investigate the natural convection of a nanofluid flow on the thermal and hydrodynamics parameters in the presence of rough element with various arrangements.



Mohebbi, R., Izadi, M., Che Sidik, N. and Najafi, G. (2019), "Natural convection heat transfer of nanofluid inside a cavity containing rough elements using lattice Boltzmann method", International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.

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