The health belief model (HBM) is the behavioral change theory most widely used in health behavior studies. Several studies have identified the limitations of this model, one of which concerns the validity in predicting behavioral changes. The purpose of this paper, scoping review, is to map the validity of HBM variables in predicting behavioral changes based on available synthesized evidences.
A scoping review was conducted using the Arksey and O’Malley’s framework. PubMed, Health Evidence, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar were searched using a combination of keywords: health belief model, review, systematic review and meta-analysis between February 15 and March 18, 2016.
Of the 1,457 articles, 4 met the inclusion criteria. All results showed that HBM variables were consistently related to behaviors and the strength of the correlation were varied. Perceived barriers and perceived benefits were the strongest predictor, while perceived severity was the weakest. The association between HBM variables and behaviors was moderated by some aspects of behavioral outcomes, the study design and the time interval between measurement of the HBM variables and behavior.
Although the four main variables of HBM have been shown to be related to behavior, the overall outcomes are varied and have not demonstrated conclusive evidence during the last ten years. The results of this scoping review imply the need for a systematic review and meta-analysis of the results of recent studies. In addition, more longitudinal studies are needed to ensure the validity of HBM variables by considering any possible moderators.
Funding: this review has not received any specific grant from any funding agency. Conflict of interest statement: the authors declared no conflict of interest. The authors would like to thank Erik Christopher, the staff of Klinik Bahasa (Office of Research and Publication, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada) and especially Panca Desristanto for excellence in assistance in language editing before submission.
Sulat, J.S., Prabandari, Y.S., Sanusi, R., Hapsari, E.D. and Santoso, B. (2018), "The validity of health belief model variables in predicting behavioral change: A scoping review", Health Education, Vol. 118 No. 6, pp. 499-512. https://doi.org/10.1108/HE-05-2018-0027
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