To read this content please select one of the options below:

Vietnamese teachers’ self-efficacy in teaching English as a Foreign Language: Does culture matter?

Nga Thi Tuyet Phan (Industrial University of HoChiMinh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and the University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand)
Terry Locke (University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand)

English Teaching: Practice & Critique

ISSN: 1175-8708

Article publication date: 3 May 2016




The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of culture on the sense of self-efficacy in teaching English as a Foreign Language of a group of university teachers in Vietnam. Research exploring the relationship between culture and self-efficacy is extremely rare despite the acknowledged importance of culture in the formation of self-efficacy beliefs.


This study took the form of qualitative research with diverse, data collection instruments: individual interviews, focus group discussions, observations and journaling.


Findings indicate that certain features of the Vietnamese cultural context impacted on the way the study teachers constructed their sense of self-efficacy. Specifically, under the influence of a Vietnamese sense of belonging, the study teachers tended to rely more on efficacy-building information from other people rather than from themselves. The perception of inequality in power may have heightened negative emotional arousal, thus contributing to a negative sense of self-efficacy among the teachers. The Vietnamese concept of face and the high status of teachers in the social hierarchy in part mediated teachers’ sense of self-efficacy.

Social implications

The perceived burden of performing both parenting and teaching roles and responsibilities may have diminished the self-efficacy in teaching of female teachers.


The contribution and implications of the study are discussed.



Phan, N.T.T. and Locke, T. (2016), "Vietnamese teachers’ self-efficacy in teaching English as a Foreign Language: Does culture matter?", English Teaching: Practice & Critique, Vol. 15 No. 1, pp. 105-128.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2016, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Related articles