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Mind the game you set for better website patronage

Kriti Krishna (Department of Marketing, Indian Institute of Management Lucknow, Lucknow, India)
Bharadhwaj Sivakumaran (Paari School of Business, SRM University-AP, Amaravati, India)
Satish S. Maheswarappa (Department of Marketing, Indian Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli, Tiruchirappalli, India, and)
Ankur Jha (Department of Marketing, Indian Institute of Management Ranchi, Ranchi, India)

European Journal of Marketing

ISSN: 0309-0566

Article publication date: 5 April 2023

Issue publication date: 5 May 2023




This paper aims to develop a conceptual model to understand how different gamification designs (hedonic and utilitarian) evoke different emotions and impact subsequent patronage intentions for online consumers in different mindsets.


The authors first conducted a content analysis study and then tested the model with two online experiments [both 2 × 2 factorial designs – gamification (hedonic/utilitarian) and mindset (implemental/deliberative), with different utilitarian and hedonic products].


Gamification with hedonic benefits influences website patronage intentions by evoking promotion emotions, while gamification with utilitarian benefits does so by evoking prevention emotions. Gamification with hedonic benefits has a stronger impact on consumers shopping with deliberative mindsets, while gamification with utilitarian benefits works better for those with implemental mindsets.

Research limitations/implications

Future research may extend the present work by considering other types of gamification.

Practical implications

Managerially, e-tailers may use gamification with hedonic aspects for consumers in deliberative mindsets and utilitarian aspects for those in implemental mindsets.


To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research is the first to draw a link between mindsets and gamification. This research is also the first to operationalize gamification as hedonic and utilitarian based on their design characteristics and to establish emotional consequences as an important link between gamification and user behaviors.



Krishna, K., Sivakumaran, B., Maheswarappa, S.S. and Jha, A. (2023), "Mind the game you set for better website patronage", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57 No. 5, pp. 1560-1590.



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