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The Industry 5.0 (I50) paradigm, blockchain-based applications and the smart city

Anna Visvizi (SGH Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland) (Effat University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia) (The American College of Greece, Athens, Greece)
Radosław Malik (SGH Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland)
Gianluca Maria Guazzo (Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Fisciano, Italy)
Vilma Çekani (Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Fisciano, Italy)

European Journal of Innovation Management

ISSN: 1460-1060

Article publication date: 10 April 2024




Against the background of the I50 paradigm, this paper queries in what ways blockchain and blockchain-based applications deployed in the smart city context facilitate the integration of the I50 paradigm in smart urban contexts.


A mixed methods approach is applied. First, by means of desk research and thematic literature review, a conceptual model integrating the I50 paradigm, smart city and blockchain-based solutions is built. Second, science mapping bibliometric analysis (SciMat) based on keywords’ co-occurrence is applied to a sample of 491 research articles to identify key domains of blockchain-based applications’ use in smart city. Third, a semi-systematic literature review complements insights gained through SciMat. Fourth, the findings are interpreted through the precepts of the conceptual model devised earlier.


The key blockchain-based applications in smart cities pertain to two domains, i.e. the foundational, service facilitation-oriented domain, including security (and safety), networks, computing, resource management and the service delivery-oriented domain, including mobility, energy and healthcare. Blockchain serves as the key building block for applications developed to deliver functions specific to each of the thus identified domains. A substantial layering of blockchain-based tools and applications is necessary to advance from the less to the more complex functional domains of the smart city.


At the conceptual level, the intricacies of the (making of the) I50 paradigm are discussed and a case for I50 – smart city – blockchain nexus is made. Easton’s input–output model as well as constructivism is referenced. At the empirical level, the key major domains of blockchain-based applications are discussed; those that bear the prospect of integrating the I50 paradigm in the smart city are highlighted. At the methodological level, a strategic move is made aimed at restoring the literature review’s role as subservient to the key line of exploration, to justify and ultimately support it, rather than to showcase the literature review as the ultimate purpose for itself.



Research presented in this paper constitutes a part of the implementation of the following grant: “Smart cities: Modeling, Indexing and Querying Smart City Competitiveness,” National Science Centre (NCN), Poland, grant OPUS 20, Nr DEC-2020/39/B/HS4/00579.

Research presented in this paper constitutes a part of the implementation of the following grant: “From invoice factories to knowledge hubs? Investigating intensity of reverse knowledge transfers from offshored captive centers to parent companies.” The Polish National Agency for Academic Exchange (NAWA), The Bekker NAWA Programme, BPN/BEK/2021/2/00024/U/00001.


Visvizi, A., Malik, R., Guazzo, G.M. and Çekani, V. (2024), "The Industry 5.0 (I50) paradigm, blockchain-based applications and the smart city", European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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