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How cross-culture affects the outcomes of co-creation

Emily Mary Grott (University Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla, Spain)
Jesus Cambra-Fierro (University Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla, Spain)
Lourdes Perez (Toulouse University, Toulouse Business School, Barcelona, Spain)
Mirella Yani-de-Soriano (Cardiff University Business School, Cardiff, UK)

European Business Review

ISSN: 0955-534X

Article publication date: 10 June 2019




The aim of this study is two-fold. Firstly, to examine the outcomes of co-creation from a customer perspective using well-recognised customer management variables (customer satisfaction, loyalty and word-of-mouth (WOM). Secondly, to assess potential cross-cultural differences that may exist within the context of co-creation.


A questionnaire was completed in the banking services industry, and the final valid sample comprised individuals from the UK and Spain. Multi-sample analysis was carried out using PLS software.


Co-creation has a direct influence on customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and WOM; co-creation activities lead to cumulative customer satisfaction, which also affects customer loyalty and positive WOM. Furthermore, the results show that the direct relationships between co-creation and loyalty and WOM are more powerful for British consumers than Spanish consumers, who need to feel satisfied prior to demonstrating loyalty and engaging in positive WOM.

Practical implications

Firms can use co-creation as a strategic tool if they provide trustworthy collaboration spaces. Furthermore, firms need to adapt the way they interact, listen and respond to customers in different cultural contexts. Trustworthy collaboration spaces and adapting to cultural differences can result in customers who are more satisfied, loyal to the company and more likely to carry out positive WOM, which can ultimately lead to future business.


This study provides insights into co-creation from a customer perspective. Although much service research has examined the drivers of customer co-creation, literature that analyses the consequences of customer co-creation is still scarce. Moreover, this is the first study to provide empirical evidence of cross-cultural differences within the context of co-creation.



The author expresses his gratitude for the financial support received from the Spanish Government CICYT (ECO 2017-83993P) and from the Regional Government and FEDER’s funding (Generés S09).


Grott, E.M., Cambra-Fierro, J., Perez, L. and Yani-de-Soriano, M. (2019), "How cross-culture affects the outcomes of co-creation", European Business Review, Vol. 31 No. 4, pp. 544-566.



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