Recognising the as-built state of construction elements is crucial for construction progress monitoring. Construction scholars have used computer vision-based algorithms to automate this process. Robust object recognition from indoor site images has been inhibited by technical challenges related to indoor objects, lighting conditions and camera positioning. Compared with traditional machine learning algorithms, one-stage detector deep learning (DL) algorithms can prioritise the inference speed, enable real-time accurate object detection and classification. This study aims to present a DL-based approach to facilitate the as-built state recognition of indoor construction works.
The one-stage DL-based approach was built upon YOLO version 4 (YOLOv4) algorithm using transfer learning with few hyperparameters customised and trained in the Google Colab virtual machine. The process of framing, insulation and drywall installation of indoor partitions was selected as the as-built scenario. For training, images were captured from two indoor sites with publicly available online images.
The DL model reported a best-trained weight with a mean average precision of 92% and an average loss of 0.83. Compared to previous studies, the automation level of this study is high due to the use of fixed time-lapse cameras for data collection and zero manual intervention from the pre-processing algorithms to enhance visual quality of indoor images.
This study extends the application of DL models for recognising as-built state of indoor construction works upon providing training images. Presenting a workflow on training DL models in a virtual machine platform by reducing the computational complexities associated with DL models is also materialised.
The authors wish to thank Mr. Benjamin Lunn, the Project coordinator at SQ Projects Pty Limited for his support during the site image data collection.
Ekanayake, B., Ahmadian Fard Fini, A., Wong, J.K.W. and Smith, P. (2022), "A deep learning-based approach to facilitate the as-built state recognition of indoor construction works", Construction Innovation, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/CI-05-2022-0121
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